The Shroud of Turin: Jesus' Bloodstained Burial Cloth or a Fascinating Forgery?
The Shroud of Turin is believed by many to be the bloodstained burial cloth Jesus of Nazareth was wrapped in after his crucifixion. But skeptics say it is a forgery, or at best only a religious article of historical significance. What can modern research tell us?
The Shroud of Turin , a pale sheet of woven fabric approximately 14-feet (4.5 meters) –long, might be considered unremarkable save for the distinctive reddish-brown markings on its front and back. The image of a prone man with hands folded can be made out on the cloth, with both the front and back views of the head meeting neatly at the middle of the sheet, suggesting it was folded over the front and back of a naked body in death. Countless horrible wounds to the body are revealed through the images on the fabric, from slashes to gouges, piercings, and welts. These images strongly indicate to proponents the evidence of crucifixion and the Biblical description of the death of Jesus. But science and history suggest there’s more to the story.
The full length of the Shroud of Turin. Scientists and scholars cannot resolve the mystery of the shroud. ( Public Domain )
The Hidden History of the Shroud of Turin
Historical record can place the shroud in the late 1300s. Scholars debate its existence previous to 1390, describing the period before that as “very murky territory.” Even during the middle ages there was disagreement over authenticity of the cloth, with written claims at the time between church officials suggesting it was a forgery. However, historians raise the possibility that several such ‘shrouds’ were making the rounds at the time, and forgery claims might have had nothing to do with the cloth found today in the cathedral in Turin, Italy.
Since the 15th century, the existence of that shroud is well documented. It was deeded to the House of Savoy in Italy in 1453, and suffered damage in a fire. Patches and repair-work have been done at various times on the artifact. It was set in a chapel in the 17th century, but it wasn’t until 200 years later that it was put on public display and first photographed.
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Full length negatives of the Shroud of Turin. ( Public Domain )
It was these photographs which elevated the cloth from relic to sensation. The photos were not remarkable in and of themselves, until viewed in the reverse negative, whereupon a detailed image of a wounded, bearded man became clearly visible. It had previously been suspected that the stains and images were painted on the linen by an artist at some point in its history, but the discovery of the detailed body image found embedded within the fabric drastically rewrote theories, and convinced many that the images were made through contact with an actual human corpse. Some Christians believe the image was transferred from Jesus’ body onto the cloth with a release of “divine light” or energy upon his resurrection.
A poster advertising the 1898 exhibition of the shroud in Turin. Secondo Pia's photograph was taken a few weeks too late to be included in the poster. The image on the poster includes a painted face, not obtained from Pia's photograph. ( Public Domain )
If this was indeed the death shroud which encased the body of the historical Jesus of Nazareth , that would date the cloth to 30 AD, the biblical date of the death of Jesus. However, this dating is at odds with later historical record, as well as the modern scientific research on the artifact.
Scientific Examinations and Bombshell Revelations
A variety of tests have been carried out on the shroud since scientists were first allowed to examine it in 1969, including physical examinations, chemical analyses, and radiocarbon dating. Initial examinations led to the formation of an 11-member Turin Commission composed of scientists and advisors, and in 1977 the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) was born.
Their findings, based on a gamut of rigorous tests, were reported in 1981, stating:
"We can conclude for now that the Shroud image is that of a real human form of a scourged, crucified man. It is not the product of an artist. The blood stains are composed of hemoglobin and also give a positive test for serum albumin. The image is an ongoing mystery and until further chemical studies are made, perhaps by this group of scientists, or perhaps by some scientists in the future, the problem remains unsolved."
The researchers found no sign of artificial pigments, meaning the image had been made by a real human body, but the question of how this had happened was not answered.
Radiocarbon 14 dating of the cloth revealed the shroud material dated to 1260–1390 AD, a bombshell finding, conflicting with the timelines of the death of Jesus. But critics alleged that the samples of fabric that were tested came from more recent patches, rather than the original cloth.
And in 1998 the office of the former Cardinal Archbishop of Turin, Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero, issued a statement that the radiocarbon dating was tampered with in an “overseas Masonic plot.”
Adding to the wealth of strange findings on the enigmatic shroud, Italian researchers in 2015 discovered that the cloth may have been made in India , and contains DNA from all over the world. By sequencing DNA from dust and pollen on the shroud, the origins of people and types of environments that the cloth has come into contact with have been revealed.
It shows that the cloth may have been manufactured in India, and traveled the world before coming to Italy in the Medieval period, giving rise to doubts about a Medieval European origin. Plant types revealed from DNA sequencing included horsetail, clovers, ryegrass and chicory – pointing to origins from Asia, Middle East, or the Americas .
The Body Within
Stains indicate the proposed wounds and blood of the dead man. The images on the cloth are said to show a body damaged by cuts on nearly all surfaces; punctures, gouges and linear wounds can be seen. On one hand a large, round pierce mark is visible, and similar large puncture wounds can be seen in the feet.
The renowned Shroud of Turin, religious relic and mysterious artifact. ( Public Domain )
The man’s bearded face is interpreted to be swollen and misshapen from severe beatings. Stains from blood are seemingly everywhere, especially near the area of the face and both arms.
The Question of Questions – How was the Image Made?
For all the scientific tests, no good answers present themselves on how the image in the shroud came to be, save, as believers would have it, a miracle. It has been determined the images are not painted on, but are imbued within the linen, and numerous attempts have been made to recreate the images, and to reproduce the unusual penetration of the color into the fabric, but have all fallen short. Physicist Paolo Di Lazzaro and leading expert on the phenomenon of the shroud calls this “the question of questions”: how was the image produced?
Di Lazzaro and colleagues used state-of-the-art lasers to direct short, intense bursts of ultraviolet light on raw linen to try to replicate the shroud’s images. In the end they were not successful in matching the shroud’s qualities, nor even could they reproduce a whole human figure. Regardless of the age of the cloth, science cannot duplicate the Shroud of Turin. How was this artifact created so many years ago?
“It is unlikely science will provide a full solution to the many riddles posed by the shroud. A leap of faith over questions without clear answers is necessary—either the ‘faith’ of skeptics, or the faith of believers,” Di Lazzarro told National Geographic in 2015.
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3-dimensional model of the Shroud of Turin imprint. (Flickr/ CC BY 2.0 )
Results of the Most Recent Study
The Shroud of Turin was examined once again in 2018 . This time, forensic investigators used a fresh approach to examine the alleged blood stains on the shroud. Matteo Borrini of John Moores University and Luigi Garlaschelli, an organic scientist, decided to carry out an experiment to see if the shroud is actually fake. They employed a forensic technique called bloodstains pattern analysis (BPA) to see what the necessary arm and body position would have had to have been to make the blood pattern seen on the Shroud of Turin.
A volunteer was enlisted for the experiment. Human and synthetic blood were applied to the person who laid out in various poses over a cloth. Then the blood spatter patterns obtained in the experiment were compared to what is depicted on the shroud.
The results published in the Journal of Forensic Science suggest the Shroud of Turin is almost certainly a fake. They state the BPA was a result of someone adopting several poses and some of the blood on the cloth fell off of someone standing above the shroud. This information contradicts the belief that Jesus was buried in the cloth lying down. They describe the different positions necessary to meet the BPA visible on the shroud as follows:
“The two short rivulets on the back of the left hand of the Shroud are only consistent with a standing subject with arms at a ca 45° angle. This angle is different from that necessary for the forearm stains, which require nearly vertical arms for a standing subject. The BPA of blood visible on the frontal side of the chest (the lance wound) shows that the Shroud represents the bleeding in a realistic manner for a standing position while the stains at the back—of a supposed postmortem bleeding from the same wound for a supine corpse—are totally unrealistic. Simulation of bleeding from the nail wounds contacting wood surfaces yielded unclear results.”
However, the findings have been criticized by at least one forensic scientist, who suggests the BPA could have resulted through the transportation of a corpse in the cloth.
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Does the Shroud’s Authenticity Really Matter?
The latest investigation indicate that the Shroud of Turin was most likely one of the many fake religious relics made in Medieval Europe. But Borrini himself has stated that the status of the shroud as a fake shouldn’t be seen as an attack against the faith of believers.
The cloth’s authenticity has never even been officially declared by the Catholic Church, and it has only been described as a “mirror of the gospel”, and even a “distinguished relic” by Pope John Paul II. As The Independent mentioned following the 2018 discovery, “The official Church position is that the shroud is only an artistic representation of Christ and not a holy relic.”
Nevertheless, the church encourages devotion to it, and the cloth has been protected and venerated by the faithful for centuries. It now sits on display under bulletproof glass in an airtight, environment-controlled case in Turin, northern Italy where it is guarded by cameras, drones, and police.
Philip Ball, former editor of science journal Nature hinted at the shroud’s enduring challenge: “it's fair to say that, despite the seemingly definitive tests in 1988, the status of the Shroud of Turin is murkier than ever. Not least, the nature of the image and how it was fixed on the cloth remain deeply puzzling.” Parts of the puzzle are still unresolved decades later, securing the Shroud of Turin as one of the more controversial and inexplicable relics in history, regardless of its authenticity.
Top Image: The Shroud of Turin: modern, digitally processed image of the face on the cloth [left] and the full body image as seen on the shroud [right]. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
By: Liz Leafloor
Updated on January 19, 2021.
Barcaccia, G. et al. Uncovering the sources of DNA found on the Turin Shroud. Sci. Rep. 5, 14484; doi: 10.1038/srep14484 (2015).
Charles Freeman. “The Origins of the Shroud of Turin” 2014. HistoryToday.com [Online] Available at: http://www.historytoday.com/charles-freeman/origins-shroud-turin
Rhodi Lee. “ Shroud Of Turin Possibly Created In India But Contains DNA From Plants All Over The World: Study. ” 2015. TechTimes.com [Online] Available here.
April Holloway. “Could ancient earthquake explain face of Jesus in Shroud of Turin?” 2014. Ancient-Origins.com [Online] Available here.
Frank Viviano. “Why Shroud of Turin's Secrets Continue to Elude Science” 2015. NationalGeographic.com [Online] Available here.
Mark Guscin, B.A. M.Phil. "The Sudarium of Oviedo: Its History and Relationship to the Shroud of Turin". 1997. Shroud.com [Online] Available at: https://www.shroud.com/guscin.htm
Utter hoax. Doesn't even look like a real human face, more of a caricature. Besides, how does a bloodstain look SO consistently perfect? Not natural at all. Remember, demons want to deceive people and have been putting in work toward that end for a long time.
The Byzantine Shroud was kept in the Blachernae Church of the Virgin when the city fell to the crusaders in 1204. It was displayed in a special casing that was unrolled to show the face and chest. The Church of Blachernae was one of the first shrines to be looted. The Byzantine shroud vanished in the sack. Also the famous icon of the Virgin that perfomed a regular miracle in the church, that was covered with jeweled veils vanished in the sack. There is no record as to the fate of both of these. I don’t know if there is anuy conection of the shrioud of Turin to the Byzantine shroud. The Mandylion was in the Chapel of the Pharos and is now in Notre Dame of Paris.
World of Byzantium
Belief in Christ and belief in the shroud are not related to one another.
There is no description of Jesus’ appearance in the scriptures other than that he had a beard (because it was plucked out during his “trial” and crucifixion). To say he had blond hair and was taller than most is pure speculation and folklore – and bad folklore at that as there aren’t many Jews with blond hair.
If radiation made the image, why is it blank on the sides? It defies basic physics and common sense. As I pointed out above, the concept of a single sheet covering full body and head also defies the biblical account and Jewish burial customs, and Jesus was buried by two Jews (Joseph of Arimethea and Nicodemus the Pharisee).
The burden of proof, sir, is on you to reconcile the account with the Bible.
I am a Christian so the shroud has nothing to do with my belief or unbelief in Jesus. It has to do with my willingness to believe in a physical object that contradicts common sense and the biblical account.
As Paul said, “...let God be true, but every man a liar...”. (Rom 3:4)
The shroud is certainly real. It is an image that has been proven to have been produced by an intense release of energy. The Blood type AB some say negative. The Catholic church certainly isn't one that would be reliable to comment on this. The area sampled was from the edge that was a repaired area. Here is one link https://www.newgeology.us/presentation24.html . Every mark shown on the shroud as well as the bilirubin present confirms the bible descriptions of the brutal torture of our Lord. The worst possible thing and the most evil one is to deny the truth of our lord. The downplay or denial of him is a sick agenda that has been going on since before his time. It is real. He appearance on the shroud is what descriptions given of him confirm. Blond hair, taller than most. Time to leave the selfish and destroying agenda behind. It is late.
The gospel of John gives 3 accounts of burial. Two pertain to Jesus and one pertains to Lazarus.
We are told in John 11:44 that Lazarus was bound hand and foot with wrappings (plural) and had a separate headcloth.
We are told in John 19:38-42 that Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimethea prepared the body of Jesus in the “...burial custom of the day...” with linen wrappings (plural) and approximately 100 lbs of spices.
We are told in John 20:5-7 that they looked into the empty tomb and saw the linen wrappings (plural) along with a head cloth that was neatly folded, separate from the wrappings.
The burial custom of the day was to wrap the body in linen strips that were saturated in spices (if one had the money to afford such spices – and Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus were both men of some financial means to make this possible). Lazarus was wrapped in linen strips - so much so that the account in John says he was bound hand and foot and had to be “unwrapped" after being raised from the dead in order to walk. He also had on a head cloth that had to be removed so he could see.
The account of Jesus is identical: linen wrappings (plural) and a separate head cloth. Not a single shroud. We are also told clearly that the head cloth was neatly folded, separate from the wrappings (plural) in Jesus’s empty tomb.
All of these details preclude the shroud as legitimate.
The other gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke) discuss the burial preparation of Jesus by saying merely that Joseph used a clean linen sheet, so to harmonize with John it means the sheet was torn or cut into strips and a separate piece of linen for the head. These details are sufficient to disqualify the shroud as authentic. It contradicts the biblical account of wrappings (plural) and a separate cloth for the head, and should therefore be rejected, regardless of any radiocarbon dating, blood stain analysis, or other scientific assessments.