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The White Slaves of Barbary

The White Slaves of Barbary

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Much attention and condemnation has been directed towards the tragedy of the African slave trade , which took place between the 16 th and the 19 th centuries. However, another equally despicable trade in humans was taking place around the same time in the Mediterranean.  It is estimated that up to 1.25 million Europeans were enslaved by Barbary corsairs , and their lives were just as pitiful as their African counterparts. They have come to be known as the white slaves of Barbary.

Slavery is one of the oldest trades known to man. We can first find records of the slave trade dating back to The Code of Hammurabi in Babylon in the 18th century BCE. People from virtually every major culture, civilization, and religious background have made slaves of their own and enslaved other peoples. However, comparatively little attention has been given to the prolific slave trade that was carried out by pirates, or corsairs, along the Barbary coast (as it was called by Europeans at the time), in what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, beginning around 1600 AD.

Anyone travelling in the Mediterranean at the time faced the real prospect of being captured by the Corsairs and taken to Barbary Coast cities and being sold as slaves. 

However, not content with attacking ships and sailors, the corsairs also sometimes raided coastal settlements in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, England, Ireland, and even as far away as the Netherlands and Iceland.  They landed on unguarded beaches, and crept up on villages in the dark to capture their victims.  Almost all the inhabitants of the village of Baltimore, in Ireland, were taken in this way in 1631.  As a result of this threat, numerous coastal towns in the Mediterranean were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants until the 19 th century.

The Sacking of Baltimore

The raiding of the coastal village of Baltimore on Ireland’s South West coast is one of the more horrific acts performed by the Barbary corsairs.  At 2.00am on 20 June, 1631, over 200 corsairs armed with muskets, iron bars and sticks of burning wood landed on the shore of Baltimore and silently spread out, waiting at the front doors of the cottages along the shoreline and the homes in the main village. When a signal was given, they simultaneously charged into the homes, pulling the sleeping inhabitants from their beds. Twenty men, 33 women and 54 children were dragged into ships and began the long voyage back to Algiers. 

Upon arrival, the citizens of Baltimore were taken to slave pens before being paraded before prospective buyers, chained and nearly naked. Men were typically used for labor and women as concubines, while children were often raised as Muslims, eventually forming part of the slave corps within the Ottoman army. 

Captured victims arrive on the Barbary coast

Captured victims arrive on the Barbary coast to be sold as slaves.

The Rise of the Barbary Corsairs

In the 13th and 14th centuries, it was Christian pirates, primarily from Catalonia and Sicily, that dominated the seas, posing a constant threat to merchants. It was not until the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the 15 th century that the Barbary corsairs started to become a menace to Christian shipping.

Around 1600 AD, European pirates brought advanced sailing and shipbuilding techniques to the Barbary Coast, which enabled the corsairs to extend their activities into the Atlantic Ocean, and the impact of Barbary raids peaked in the early to mid-17th century.

While the Barbary slave trade is typically portrayed as Muslim corsairs capturing white Christian victims, this is far too simplistic.  In reality, the corsairs were not concerned with the race or religious orientation of those they captured. Slaves in Barbary could be black, brown or white, Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Jewish or Muslim. And the corsairs were not only Muslim; English privateers and Dutch captains also exploited the changing loyalties of an era in which friends could become enemies and enemies friends with the stroke of a pen.

"One of the things that both the public and many scholars have tended to take as given is that slavery was always racial in nature,” said historian Robert Davis, author of Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy . “But that is not true," he added.

In comments which may stoke controversy, Davis claims that white slavery had been minimised or ignored because academics preferred to treat Europeans as evil colonialists rather than as victims.

The Barbary slave trade

The Barbary slave trade is typically depicted as Muslims capturing white Christians, such as in the artwork above, but this is not entirely accurate. Image source.

Life as a Barbary Slave

The slaves captured by the Barbary pirates faced a grim future. Many died on the ships during the long voyage back to North Africa due to disease or lack of food and water. Those who survived were taken to slave markets where they would stand for hours while buyers inspected them before they were sold at auction.

After purchase, slaves would be put to work in various ways. Men were usually assigned to hard manual labor, such as working in quarries or heavy construction, while women were used for housework or in sexual servitude.  At night the slaves were put into prisons called 'bagnios' that were often hot and overcrowded. However, by far the worst fate for a Barbary slave was being assigned to man the oars of galleys. Rowers were shackled where they sat, and never allowed to leave. Sleeping, eating, defecation and urination took place at the seat. Overseers would crack the whip over the bare backs of any slaves considered not to be working hard enough.

Galley Slaves of the Barbary Corsairs

Galley Slaves of the Barbary Corsairs. Image source .

The end of the Barbary corsairs

Corsair activity began to diminish in the latter part of the 17th century, as the more powerful European navies started to force the pirates to cease attacking their shipping. However, it wasn’t until the first years of the 19th century, that the United States of America and some European nations began to fight back more fervently against the Barbary pirates.

Algiers was frequently bombarded by the French, Spanish and Americans, in the early 19th century. Eventually, after an Anglo-Dutch raid in 1816 on Algiers, the corsairs were forced to agree to terms which included a cessation of the practice of enslaving Christians, although slave trading of non-Europeans was allowed to continue.

A Sea Fight with Barbary Corsairs

A Sea Fight with Barbary Corsairs, c. 1681. Image source .

Occasional incidents continued to occur until another British raid on Algiers in 1824, and finally, a French invasion of Algiers in 1830, which placed it under colonial rule. Tunis was similarly invaded by France in 1881. Tripoli returned to direct Ottoman control in 1835, before finally falling into Italian hands in the 1911 Italo-Turkish War. The slave trade finally ceased on the Barbary coast when European governments passed laws granting emancipation to slaves.

Featured image: A slave caught by Barbary pirates. Image source .

References:

Slavery and White Guilt – James Eden. Available from:    http://www.westernspring.co.uk/slavery-and-white-guilt/

Barbary pirates – Wikipedia. Available from:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbary_pirates#Barbary_slaves

African Slave Traders and their White European Slaves – Grumpy Opinions. Available from:   http://grumpyelder.com/2012/08/african-slave-traders-and-their-white-european-slaves/

America and the Barbary Pirates: An International Battle Against an Unconventional Foe – The Library of Congress. Available from: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/jefferson_papers/mtjprece.html

British Slaves on the Barbary Coast – BBC / Robert Davis. Available from:   http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/white_slaves_01.shtml

New book reopens old arguments about slave raids on Europe – The Guardian. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/mar/11/highereducation.books

When Europeans were slaves – Ohio State University.

From Baltimore to Barbary: the 1631 sack of Baltimore – History Ireland. Available from:  https://www.historyireland.com/early-modern-history-1500-1700/from-baltimore-to-barbary-the-1631-sack-of-baltimore/ 

By April Holloway

Comments

"... white slaves, but they did not suffer like the black slave... "
Perhaps not to your knowledge; but you might want to consider that the white slaves from Ireland were not considered in the same high regard as black slaves were. Black slaves were much more valuable; and considered more trustworthy and hard-working. And so they were much better cared for. My family's Irish history informs we of this, as do financial records of slave owners and historical records.
Facts are facts. Slavery sucks, no matter who is enslaved.
Do we hold those that previously owned us in contempt? No, that was generations ago.
The past.
About which nothing can be done to change what happened, or to whom it happened. One can only go forward from where you start, no sense in living in the past; even if there is much to be learned from it.
Time to get over it; we did.

Quite the opposite, really. Most white slaves did not survive past a young age -- hence you don't see a significant white population in those regions today. Black slaves for the most part did not survive any better, unless you were among the 4 percent taken to the American colonies. Life expectancy, mortality rates, diets, etc. were nearly identical among black slaves and the average white citizen in those days.
Hence, you see large black populations in those regions today.

"they did not lose as many lives as we did [ two hundred million people ]"

That's a neat trick, given that the population of Africa in 1750 was only 106 million.

Actually, it seems to be very "right on" & "cool" to say that they are going to enslave whites one day soon in the future!
I definitely see no peer condemnation when blacks so lackadaisically talk about & degrade "the white man" right in online comments where the world can see they give not one thought to anyone else's culture or race but their own.
Not anymore.
Not when the state is raising these kids. And raising them to hate as if it is merely retribution which that old disgusting "white man" deserves.

Actually, for the majority of the history of enslavement, money had only a secondary role in its prevalence around the world. Slaves were almost exclusively taken after a battle- because the men were dead and the victors began taking the surviving women and children- not as a means to make money or increase personal wealth, but because at some point, they discovered that doing so solved two huge problems in early human history- genetic diversity and a brain growing large enough to make the connection of birth defects resulting from in-breeding, and the second problem was the dawning of a sense of morality, believe it or not. Women with young children couldn't hunt and forage effectively while caring for children, so the victors of conflicts began to take the women and children home with them, rather than simply killing them along with their men. So no, slavery didn't always occur as a result of greed or even a belief in their enemy's inferiority. Slavery most likely began as a way to acquire fresh genetic material, while assuaging a blossoming conscience.

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