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Mesopotamian Knowledge

Welcome to our captivating exploration of Mesopotamian knowledge and science, where we delve into the remarkable intellectual achievements and scientific inquiries of the ancient Mesopotamians. Mesopotamia, often hailed as the "Cradle of Civilization," was a hub of innovation and discovery, where scholars and scribes made significant advancements in various fields of knowledge.

In this section of our website, we invite you to delve into the world of Mesopotamian knowledge and science, where each article unveils a different aspect of their intellectual pursuits. From mathematics and astronomy to medicine and technology, we unravel the ingenuity and contributions that shaped the intellectual landscape of ancient Mesopotamia.

Aerial view of the structure at Tel Shimron supporting the passageway to the corbelled vault. Credit: Eyecon.	Source: Eyecon

Israel's Tel Shimron Excavations Reveal Ancient Architectural Marvel Dating to 1,800 BC

Archaeologists participating in the ongoing Tel Shimron excavations in the Jezreel Valley of northern Israel recently unearthed the first section of an arched, vaulted passageway with steps that they...
Top: Sumerian chariots drawn by hybrid animals known as kungas, illustrated on the Standard of Ur (© Thierry Grange) Bottom left: Hybrid animals known as ‘kungas’ found at Umm el-Marra site, Syria (Glenn Schwartz/John Hopkins University). Bottom right: South of Gobekli Tepe, Turkry, D enclosure T pillars. (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Berlin).		Source: CNRS

Earliest-known Human Engineered Hybrid Animals Identified in Mesopotamia

A super-powerful animal known as the ‘kunga’ was the first-known human-engineered hybrid of two animal species, reports a new study published in Science Advances . The researchers conducted a genome-...
Fragment of talisman used to exorcise the sick, Assyrian era.

Mixing Magic and Medicine: New Study Shows Mesopotamian Doctors Had to Battle Demons

Analysis of a collection of clay tablets confirms that a Mesopotamian doctor had to deal with more than just physical ailments. The ancient healer was expected to exorcise demons, ward off witchcraft...
Deriv; Stone statue of Gilgamesh (CC BY 2.0), used here as a representation of an ancient Mesopotamian man. Background: Solar event. (CC0) Information provided by ancient Assyrian astrologers can help modern scientists predict future solar storms.

Ancient Assyrian Astrologers Teach Us About Solar Storms

What exactly goes on high above our heads? Why do the stars and celestial spheres seem to dance around the sky? What is the sun up to when it seems to “randomly” disappear in the day, or when it...
Plimpton 322 clay tablet. Source: Public Domain.

Were the Ancient Babylonians Far More Advanced Than We Thought? (Video)

Plimpton 322 , a 3,800-year-old ancient clay tablet, stands as a testament to the astounding mathematical prowess of the Babylonians. Dating back centuries before ancient Greece, this artifact...
Relief image on the Tablet of Shamash, British Library room 55. Found in Sippar (Tell Abu Habbah), in Ancient Babylonia; it dates from the 9th century BC and shows the sun god Shamash on the throne, in front of the Babylonian king Nabu-apla-iddina (888-855 BC) between two interceding deities. The Babylonian language text tells how the king made a new cultic statue for the god and gave privileges to his temple.

Ancient Babylonian Reborn After Having Been Silenced for 2000 Years

Almost 2,000 years after falling out of use, a Cambridge University linguistics specialist, Dr. Martin Worthington has learned how to speak ancient Babylonian and is not only campaigning to revive it...
The 3700-year-old Babylonian tablet with the ‘Pythagorean theorem.’

3700-year old Babylonian Tablet Confirms Pythagoras Did Not Invent the Theorem Bearing His Name

An unknown Babylonian mathematician beat Pythagoras to the discovery of trigonometry by more than 1000 years, claim experts studying the piece. That Babylonian genius marked down the famous theorem...
‘Crossing the River Styx’ (circa 1520-1524) by Joachim Patinir. Many ancient people imagined the edges of the earth as strange and magical places.

What Did Ancient Civilizations Believe Lay at The Edges of the Earth?

The first civilizations didn’t have satellites in the sky, mapping every inch of the world in real time. They only knew the parts of the world they’d seen. Everything beyond that, they had to imagine...
Medieval stargazers. People have been fascinated by the stars and their possible influence over our lives, long before and after the time of Babylonian astrology.

Babylonian Astrology: How Mesopotamian Priests Influenced Your Horoscope

Mankind has always looked up to the sky and wondered at its beauty and secrets. Human beings are also incredibly good at spotting patterns, so it is no wonder that we noticed the changing appearance...
The Clay Tablet that reveals the Babylonians were using calculus to track the path of Jupiter.

Clay Tablet Reveals Ancient Babylonians Used Calculus to Track Jupiter 1,500 Years before Europeans

A new analysis of a set of ancient clay tablets has revealed that ancient astronomers of Babylonia used advanced geometrical methods to calculate the position of Jupiter – a conceptual leap that was...
Ancient cheesemaking (Jacques Ribieff / Adobe Stock)

Gods, Goats And Cheesemakers In Ancient Times

During a trip to France, cheesy pasta dishes were served to America’s President Thomas Jefferson. Enthralled by the dish, the president went on to have both the pasta and Parmesan cheese imported to...
Babylonian clay tablet shows Pythagorean Triples were used 3,700 years ago.           Source: University of New South Wales

Mathematician Finds Pythagorean Triples On Ancient Babylonian Tablet

A University of New South Wales, Sydney mathematician has discovered the oldest example of applied geometry ever recorded, the university’s newsroom reports . The tablet illustrates the use of...