Human Skeletons in Roopkund Lake

Skeleton Lake and the mystery of the ancient remains frozen in time in a desolate valley of the Himalayas


Imagine a frozen lake which, upon melting each year, reveals the unnerving sight of the remains of more than 300 people. A small lake known as Roopkund Lake sits high in the Indian Himalayas, more than 16,000 feet (4,900 meters) above sea level. Covered in ice and surrounded by rocky glaciers, the lake appears to be a typical, albeit beautiful, natural wonder. However, during one month of the year, when the ice melts away and the bottom of the shallow lake becomes visible, the true nature of the lake reveals itself. At the bottom of the lake are hundreds of mysterious human skeletons. There have been efforts to determine who these people were, where they were from, and how they died, buy many questions still remain unanswered about the skeletons at Roopkund – now referred to as Skeleton Lake.

Roopkund Lake likes in the harsh terrain of the Himalayas

Roopkund Lake likes in the harsh terrain of the Himalayas. Credit: Atul Sunsunwal / flickr

Roopkund Lake is located at the bottom of a small valley in the Himalayas, in Chamoli district, Uttaranchal, in India. The lake is very shallow, with its greatest depth at approximately 2 meters. The area is a popular destination for adventurous tourists, due to the spectacular trek to get there. There are several trekking routes on the way to Roopkund, which many take advantage of, both for the picturesque view, and to satisfy the curiosity and intrigue surrounding the skeletal remains. 

Trekkers making their way to Roopkun in the Himalayas

Trekkers making their way to Roopkun in the Himalayas ( Wikimedia Commons )

The first reports regarding the skeletal remains date to the 19 th century, but the remains were re-discovered by Nanda Devi game reserve ranger H K Madhwal in 1942. He discovered a few of the skeletons at the bottom of the lake while it was frozen. As summer came, and the frozen lake melted, more skeletons were revealed in the lake, and around the lake’s edges. It is believed that the skeletons number around 300.

When the discovery was made, there was no information available about the remains. No one knew who the remains belonged to, how long they had been there, or what had happened to them. Since the skeletons had been rediscovered during World War II, the first assumption was that these were the skeletons of soldiers, perhaps Japanese soldiers who had died from exposure to the elements while traveling through India. Because of this possibility, determining the source of the remains became a priority. A team of investigators was sent to Roopkund, where they quickly determined that the remains were too old to be from the ongoing war. With the immediate concerns of war being eased, the urgency of identifying the remains became less of a priority and efforts to further analyze the remains were sidelined.

Roopkund lake in August 2014

Roopkund lake in August 2014 ( Wikimedia Commons )

With later investigation, it became apparent that the remains consisted of more than just bones. The frigid temperatures, and dry, cold air allowed bits of flesh, nails, and hair to be preserved as well.  In addition, pieces such as wooden artifacts, iron spearheads, leather slippers, and jewelry were discovered.

Oxford University's Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit conducted radiocarbon dating on the remains and concluded that they date back to around 850 AD. Without any evidence of a nearby settlement, it is believed that the individuals were traveling when they died. But what caused their death? Was there a massive landslide? Did some disease strike suddenly? Were the individuals conducting a ritualistic suicide? Did they die of starvation? Were they killed in an enemy attack? One theory even suggests that the individuals did not die at the scene of the lake, but their bodies were deposited there as a result of glacial movement.

Human skeleton found at Roopkund Lake

Human skeleton found at Roopkund Lake. Credit: Saibat Adak / flickr

There is one local legend that may shed some light on the identity of the remains. According to legend, Raja Jasdhaval, the king of Kanauj, was traveling with his pregnant wife, Rani Balampa. They were accompanied by servants, a dance troupe, and others as they traveled on a pilgrimage to Nanda Devi shrine, for the Nanda Devi Raj Jat, which takes place every twelve years. As they traveled, they were overcome by a sudden, severe hailstorm with extremely large hail stones. The storm was too strong, and with nowhere to take shelter, the entire group perished near Roopkund. For a long time this story appeared to be a legend, with no evidence to substantiate it. However, recent finds may lend some support to the legend.

In 2013, researchers concluded that it likely that the individuals had been killed in a hail storm. The injuries on the remains indicate that each person was killed by one or more blows to the head, neck, and shoulders. There do not appear to be injuries on any other parts of their bodies, which rules out death by landslide, avalanche, or weapons. As of today, the conclusion that this group of people died due to a severe hail storm remains the most plausible explanation as to what happened to them on their ill-fated journey. However, there has been no verification as to whether this was a group traveling with the king of Kanauj, as legend states.

Roopkund Lake

Roopkund Lake. Credit: Utsav Verma / Flickr

Today, there are concerns about the conservation of Roopkund. Many trekkers have traveled there to see the remains. Many people travel there by mule, and take bones and skeletons with them as they leave. The large numbers of visitors, and the mules trekking through the area bring concerns of damage to the remains that are there. Of course, of greater concern, is the removal of remains.

While some information has been determined about the individuals, there may be a great more data to uncover, but this possibility gets smaller as more and more remains are destroyed and removed. Efforts have been made to protect that area as an eco-tourist destination, so people can still view the wonders of Roopkund, without risking destruction or removal of the skeletons. Preserving the possibility of further research is essential if there is going to be hope of learning more about the mysterious group of people that were killed over a millennia ago in the Himalayas. 

Featured image: Human Skeletons in Roopkund Lake ( Wikimedia Commons )


The Skeleton Lake of the Himalayas – Historic Mysteries. Available from:

What happens when ice melts in Roopkund Lake? - Roopkund. Available from:

The Skeleton Lake of Roopkund, India – Atlas Obscura. Available from:

Roopkund lake's skeleton mystery solved! Scientists reveal bones belong to 9th century people who died during heavy hail storm – India Today. Available from:

Roopkund – Wikipedia. Available from:

By M R Reese


I find the hail theory to be implausible.

How hard could the hail have hit them if it didn't damage their arms (which must have been held over their heads as they tried to shield themselves) ?

It seems unlikely with such a vast amount of people that EVERY person would have had the exact same type of damage on the exact same areas of their body if it had been a hail storm that had killed them.

300 people don't all get hit the same way - and only on the same areas of their bodies - while trying to shield themselves from hail. If the hail was strong enough to hit and break shoulders and heads, it was strong enough to hit and break ankles, arms, legs, spines and hips, too.

are there enough remains to see if the rest of the bodies were damaged.?

I can imagine a hailstorm killing you because of blows to the head. But if the bodies were hit when falling down, I doubt the damage was such that after all these years it was still notable


Sunny Young

Tsurugi's picture

The fact that they all appear to have wounds to the "neck, head, and shoulders" would seem to rule out the hailstorm idea in my opinion. Once you get hit in the head by a big hailstone, you fall down and get hit all over.

The idea that wounds only around the head and shoulders rules out the possibility of weapons seems odd to me as well. Certainly wounds from a battle scenario would be more varied, but what about a mass execution...?
I know that's a terrible thought, but it seems to make the most sense, given the facts.

rbflooringinstall's picture

Awesome article. Its a shame people are selfish and have to take things from the site only to ruin it for the people who haven't been there yet. I hope they can identify who these remains belong to. My money is on the people who were killed in the hail storm.

Peace and Love,


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