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The Ganymede Hypothesis

The Ganymede Hypothesis - Part 3: Ganymede


Ancient Jupiter is elevated to the sub-stellar status of having once been a T-class sub-brown dwarf, enjoying a much tighter orbit around the sun within the latter’s so-called ‘habitable zone’.  This revised orbital relationship is arrived at after assessing recent exoplanet data that shows growing numbers of Jupiter-like planets and suspected brown dwarfs in similar orbits around other sun-like stars.  The data, we suggest, points to close orbiting Jupiter-like planets being the norm throughout the universe; this fact supports our hypothesis while contradicting currently accepted notions for gas-giant planet formation according to the accretion dictates of the Solar Nebular Disk Model (SNDM).  Ganymede would have been warmed by both Jupiter and our Sun.




Brown dwarf stars and water

Jupiter’s reclassification as a former T-class sub-brown dwarf also provides a solution as to where all the water currently locked up as ice on the Galilean moons came from.  Brown dwarf stars are known carriers of water and the misting and shedding of this water within a brown dwarf’s plasma sphere can be expected to settle on any rocky satellites orbiting within.  It is precisely this scenario that we suggest for the origins of the vast amounts of water ice found on the Jovian satellites.

Fresh water oceans

Ganymede seems to be remarkably deficient in the element Sodium; i.e., salt.Sodium is thirteen times less abundant around Ganymede than it is around the other Jovian moon Europa.  Io, Jupiter’s highly volcanic moon, is awash in sodium.  However, Ganymede is not, and whatever small amounts of sodium have been detected on its surface is thought to have somehow found its way there from Ganymede’s supposedly deep salty ocean. Cosmos in Collision proposes nonstandard explanations for Ganymede’s conductivity, magnetosphere, and low moment of inertia.

Ganymede’s moment of inertia:  water or pumice? 

Ganymede’s ultra low moment of inertia is normally assumed to indicate a fantastically deep ocean, basically an outer mantel composed of salt water which supposedly accounts for both the low moment of inertia and the conductivity required for the magnetosphere.  Cosmos in Collision postulates an outer mantel of pumice to explain the moment of inertia and p-holes to explain the conductivity.

Pumice bergs and islands

A fresh water ocean lies over top of the pumice outer mantel.  Pumice actually can float.  In the age when Ganymede was inhabited, there were floating burgs of pumice as well as anchored islands of pumice.  Vegetation grew easily and well on these burgs and islands.  Cosmos in Collision proposes that the Rocky lumps found in the present ice of Ganymede are remnants of these pumice burgs and islands.

Radiation:  Ganymede’s magnetosphere

As mentioned above, Cosmos in Collision proposes a nonstandard explanation for Ganymede’s magnetosphere.  It is worth noting that Ganymede alone amongst Jupiter’s Galilean moons has a magnetosphere.  Of Jupiter’s Galilean moons: Io and Europa are inside Jupiter’s radiation belt; Callisto, outside of Jupiter’s radiation belt, would still experience radiation from the sun and shows no sign of ever having had an oxygen atmosphere; Ganymede, with its intrinsic magnetosphere, is safe from all radiation, shows signs of a past oxygen atmosphere, and in past ages would have amounted to a fresh water ocean paradise.

Capture of the Saturnian system and transfer

The sudden appearance of Cro Magnon man:

One thing scholars all agree on is that whatever caused Cro Magnon people to appear on this planet when they did was not gradual.  Vendramini ("Them and Us") note.

The speed of the Upper Palaeolithic revolution in the Levant was also breathtaking. Anthropologists Ofer Bar-Yosef and Bernard Vandermeersch:
Between 40,000 and 45,000 years ago the material culture of western Eurasia changed more than it had during the previous million years. This efflorescence of technological and artistic creativity signifies the emergence of the first culture that observers today would recognise as distinctly human, marked as it was by unceasing invention and variety. During that brief period of 5,000 or so years, the stone tool kit, unchanged in its essential form for ages, suddenly began to differentiate wildly from century to century and from region to region. Why it happened and why it happened when it did constitute two of the greatest outstanding problems in paleoanthropology.

The spiral approach of the Saturnian System

The Saturnian system did not approach our Sun in a straight line; it was a spiral approach and it was only at the points of near intersection the transfer of living creatures would have been possible.  The multi-thousand year time lapse between the Cro-Magnon saltation and Genesis is thus explained as the time between two such near approaches.

Cro Magnons and Bible Antediluvians

There appear to be two original basic human groups on our planet, i.e. Cro Magnons and Bible antediluvians.  The two were all but genetically identical but the original cultures and technologies were completely different due to the time lapse.  Both groups appear to be capable of producing any color or feature found amongst modern humans, i.e. the difference was/is not about color or race.  Cro-Magnons thus account for the “Pre-Adamites” who Cain worries about in Genesis 4, and whose existence answers other biblical conundrums.

There is no way to believe that Adam, Eve, or any of the people in Genesis were descended from Cro-Magnonss.  There is a list of things which the Bible and Jewish literature would have to know about were that the case.  Aside from everything else, the people of Genesis were metal technology people from day one, i.e. that was never any kind of a Stone Age amongst them.  Cosmos in Collision goes into these questions in some detail.

Occam’s Razor and other possibilities

In the absence of time machines, Cosmos in Collision makes heavy use of the logical principle called "Occam's razor.”  Named after Friar William of Occam, the principle is generally understood to mean that of competing theories with equal explanatory power, the simplest should be preferred.  In particular, given the immense distances between stars in our galaxy, in the presence of a completely plausible origin for modern man within our own solar system, theories involving saltations from other star systems are ruled out.  Likewise the possibility of humans arising on something entirely like Ganymede, which has since been destroyed leaving no trace, is ruled out.  In other words, for the Ganymede hypothesis to be wrong, one of two flavors of a probabilistic miracle or zero probability event would have to have occurred.  That is, human saltation from interstellar space, or from a missing twin of Ganymede.

Part 1 and Part 2.

By Ted Holden


By ‘salt’ we refer to sodium in its various manifestations as what is called ‘rock salt’ and not to sodium chloride.  Sodium is an alkali metal found in various minerals such as rock salt and is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust.  A lack of sodium in Ganymede’s atmosphere is blamed on its magnetosphere which may be fending off energetic particles capable of creating the chemical transformations to produce sodium.  Or it may simply be that Ganymede lacks sodium per sé.

See;  Michael E. Brown, “A Search for a Sodium Atmosphere around Ganymede,” Icarus, Volume 126, Issue 1, March 1997, Pages 236-238.

Danny Vendramini “Them and Us”, Kardoorair Press (2009), PDF electronic edition, pages 22 – 23

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Theodore A Holden

Recently retired after a 40-year career in computer software development which included major roles in a number of high-profile US military projects including BRAAT (Base Recovery After Attack), the US Navy Document Interchange Format (DIF) project and... Read More

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