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Heavens Gates Opening. Source: Alswart / Adobe.

What and Where is Heaven? The Answers Are at the Heart of the Easter Story


My pious Baptist grandmother once shockingly confessed, at the ripe old age of 93, that she didn’t want to go to heaven. “Why,” we asked? “Well, I think it will be rather boring just sitting around on clouds and singing hymns all day” she answered. She had a point.

Mark Twain might have agreed with her assessment. He once famously quipped that one should choose “heaven for the climate, hell for the company”.

Most of us have some concept of heaven, even if it is one formed by movies like What Dreams May Come, The Lovely Bones, or think it involves meeting Morgan Freeman in a white room. And while not as complicated as biblical ideas about hell, the biblical concept of heaven is not particularly simple either.
As New Testament scholar Paula Gooder writes:

“it is impossible to state categorically what the Bible as a whole says about heaven… Biblical beliefs about heaven are varied, complex and fluid.”

What is Heaven?

In the Christian tradition, heaven and paradise have been conflated as an answer to the question “where do I go when I die?” The idea of the dead being in heaven or enjoying paradise often brings enormous comfort to the bereaved and hope to those suffering or dying. Yet heaven and paradise were originally more about where God lived, not about us or our ultimate destination.

The words for heaven or heavens in both Hebrew ( shamayim) and Greek ( ouranos) can also be translated as sky. It is not something that exists eternally but rather part of creation.

The words for heaven or heavens in both Hebrew and Greek translate as sky. (Leonid Tit / Adobe)

The words for heaven or heavens in both Hebrew and Greek translate as sky. (Leonid Tit / Adobe)

The first line of the Bible states that heaven is created along with the creation of the earth (Genesis 1). It is primarily God’s dwelling place in the biblical tradition: a parallel realm where everything operates according to God’s will. Heaven is a place of peace, love, community, and worship, where God is surrounded by a heavenly court and other heavenly beings.

Biblical authors imagined the earth as a flat place with Sheol below (the realm of the dead) and a dome over the earth that separates it from the heavens or sky above. Of course, we know the earth is not flat, and this three-tiered universe makes no sense to a modern mind. Even so, the concept of heaven (wherever it is located) continues in Christian theology as the place where God dwells and a theological claim that this world is not all that there is.

The Disputation of the Sacrament at the Vatican Museum depicts heaven as a realm in the skies above earth. (Erzalibillas / Public Domain)

The Disputation of the Sacrament at the Vatican Museum depicts heaven as a realm in the skies above earth. (Erzalibillas / Public Domain)

What is Paradise?

The other main metaphor for God’s dwelling place in the Bible is paradise. According to Luke’s version of the crucifixion, Jesus converses with the men on either side of him while waiting to die and promises the man on a neighboring cross “today you will be with me in paradise”. 

References to paradise in the Bible are likely due to the influence of Persian culture and particularly Persian Royal gardens (paridaida). Persian walled gardens were known for their beautiful layout, diversity of plant life, walled enclosures, and being a place where the royal family might safely walk. They were effectively a paradise on earth.

The Garden of Eden in Genesis 2 is strikingly similar to a Persian Royal garden or paradise. It has abundant water sources in the rivers that run through it, fruit and plants of every kind for food, and it is “pleasing to the eye”. God dwells there, or at least visits, and talks with Adam and Eve like a King might in a royal garden.

The Garden of Eden. (FA2010 / Public Domain)

The Garden of Eden. (FA2010 / Public Domain)

In the grand mythic stories that make up the Bible, humans are thrown out of Eden due to their disobedience. And so, begins a narrative about human separation from the divine and how humans find their way back to God and God’s dwelling (paradise). In the Christian tradition, Jesus is the means of return. 

The Easter Story

The Easter event that Christians celebrate around the globe at this time of year is about the resurrection of Jesus after his violent death on the cross three days earlier. Jesus’ resurrection is seen as the promise, the “first-fruits” of what is possible for all humans – resurrection to an eternal life with God. This is, of course, a matter of faith not something that can be proven. But reconciliation with God lies at the heart of the Easter story.

Crucifixion At Sunrise - Empty Tomb With Shroud - Resurrection Of Jesus Christ. (Romolo Tavani / Adobe)

Crucifixion At Sunrise - Empty Tomb With Shroud - Resurrection Of Jesus Christ. (Romolo Tavani / Adobe)

The last book of the Bible, Revelations, conflates the idea of heaven and paradise. The author describes a vision of a new, re-created heaven coming down to earth. It is not escapism from this planet but rather an affirmation of all that is created, material, and earthly but now healed and renewed.

This final biblical vision of heaven is a lot like the garden of Eden – complete with the Tree of Life, rivers, plants, and God – although this time it is also an urban, multicultural city. In what is essentially a return to Eden, humans are reconciled with God and, of course, with one another. 

Heaven or paradise in the Bible is a utopian vision, designed not only to inspire faith in God but also in the hope that people might embody the values of love and reconciliation in this world.

Top image: Heavens Gates Opening. Source: Alswart / Adobe.

The article ‘What and where is heaven? The answers are at the heart of the Easter story‘ by Robyn J. Whitaker was originally published on The Conversation and has been republished under a Creative Common license.



What ends for us here actually goes on forever in "heaven." Actually heaven is all of space with no concept of limited time. It isn't a place because that would mean it stopped somewhere. There is no one or nothing waiting for us. "We" go back to eternity. Peacefully. I hope.

Surprised you didn't mention that the ancient Israelites seemed to have no concept of a heaven, death in fact seemed so inconsequential that a witch (the witch of Endor) was able to summon the soul of God's prophet for king Saul

Of course there is no way to adequately explore the concept of afterlife for Christians in such a short article but thanks for a fair handed effort. When Jesus the Christ (Christ or Messiah means anointed one. It's not Jesus' last name.) returns to earth those who are His will meet the returning King in the sky. This is where we get the idea of rapture although that word is not fund in the scripture. At some point there will be a new Heaven and a new earth. The implication is not that we will be sitting around singing hymns. For what it's worth the the Left Behind series represents a fairly new end times thought which is most popular in the West, especially in the States. Finally, the last book of the Christian Bible is Revelation. It is singular with no 's' on it. Stephen King make that mistake in "The Stand". One would think an editor or proof reader would have caught that in a book such as it was.

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