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 Boy went through 14 years of training on the journey to knighthood

Journey to Knighthood: The Hidden Steps of Becoming a Medieval Knight

The knight is arguably one of the most iconic figures of the Middle Ages. Knights were essentially mounted warriors, and in the hierarchy of Medieval society, were considered to be part of the lower...
Byzantium survived the Arab invasions by developing a new system of defense.

Adapting to Survive: How Byzantium Survived the Arab Invasions

The seventh century was a vital point in the history of the Byzantine army. Since the beginning of the century, territory in the Balkans had steadily been lost to Avars and Slavs . Byzantine forces...
Representation of the Winged Hussars

The Winged Hussars: An Eerie and Flamboyant Cavalry That Devasted Their Enemies

The Winged Hussars (known also as the Polish Hussars) were a type of shock cavalry used by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth . The Winged Hussars were formed during the 16 th century and were used...
Statue of Sun Tzu in Yurihama, Tottori, in Japan.

Sun Tzu: Famous Chinese Strategist and Philosopher

“Be extremely subtle, even to the point of formlessness. Be extremely mysterious, even to the point of soundlessness. Thereby you can be the director of the opponent’s fate.” General Sun Tzu...
A relief of Epona, flanked by two pairs of horses, from Roman Macedonia, foruth century C.E.

The Celtic Goddess Epona that Rode Swiftly Across the Ancient Roman Empire

The protector of horses, mules, and cavalry, Epona was one of the only non-Roman goddesses to have been wholly adopted by the Roman Empire. Often depicted astride a horse, Epona resonated in the...
Dagger axe with engraved decoration of a tiger, China, Warring States period, 475-221 BC, bronze - Östasiatiska museet, Stockholm.

Warring States Period: More than 200 Years of Blood-fueled Chinese History

The Warring States Period is an era when power was concentrated in the hands of seven major states. This was a bloody time in Chinese history and continuous warfare meant countless casualties. It was...
Modern representation of a Carthaginian war elephant.

War Elephants: The Military ‘Tanks’ of the Ancient World

“A few only of Ptolemy's elephants ventured to close with those of the enemy, and now the men in the towers on the back of these beasts made a gallant fight of it, striking with their pikes at close...
Roman cooking pot with most likely the remains of a cremated Roman Legionary, found at the Roman military camp discovered at Legio, by Tel Megiddo

Remains of Ancient Roman Soldier Discovered in a 1,700-Year-Old Cooking Pot in Israel

The remains of an ancient Roman soldier have been found in a 1,700-year-old cooking pot at a huge Roman camp in Israel. Archaeologists suggest that the camp is the only full-scale Roman legionary...
Access ramp at Qal'at al-Rahiyya, view toward the north-west.

Discovery of a 4,000-year-old military network in northern Syria

The discovery of more than a thousand sites in Syria has revised our understanding of the settlement of the steppes during all periods in the history of the Near East. Recently, analysis of aerial...
Mór Than's painting The Feast of Attila, based on a fragment of Priscus.

Did the Roughly-Hewn Stone Throne at Torcello Really Belong to Attila the Hun?

On the island of Torcello there exists an ancient white chair that local legend names as the throne of Attila the Hun. The chair is large, of solid stone and certainly has the air of unyielding...
Two cultic incense altars found in one of the rooms of the structure (Image: Michal Haber, Israel Antiquities Authority)

Drone Footage Helps Detect Rare 2,200-year-old Ruins in Military Zone

A unique Hellenistic period building, dating to the 3 rd century BC, built by the Idumeans has been unearthed in Israel’s Shephelah region. The impressive 2200-year-old structure, possibly an Idumean...
Dark forces conspired in Ancient Egypt. Egyptian relief, design by Anand Balaji.

Dark Forces Conspire to Destroy the Radiant One: The Assassination of Akhenaten—Part II

Akhenaten’s religious experiment, which was launched in the imperial capital Thebes and later nurtured in the new city Akhetaten, resulted in dramatic changes. Not only did the king oust the panoply...
Caltrops of WWI

Watch Your Step! Don’t Tread on the Caltrop, A Weapon with a Pointed History

There is a cunning and deadly device that used by armies in the past, and up to the present day. It’s a weapon mostly overlooked but is yet brilliantly effective—the caltrop. The caltrop (or calthrop...
Remains of the house of scribe Butehamun at Medinet Habu, design by Anand Balaji.

The Hunt for Herihor: Butehamun and the Death of the Royal Necropolis–Part II

Sometime around Regnal Year 17 or 19 of Pharaoh Ramesses XI matters took a turn for the worse, due in no small measure to civil unrest and a failing economy. The northern and southern parts of the...
King Herihor and Queen Nodjmet adoring the god Osiris in the afterlife. (Photo credits: Trustees of the British Museum (Wikimedia Commons)); Deriv.

The Hunt for Herihor: Waning Pharaonic Power and Advent of Priest-kings–Part I

Early in the Twenty-First Dynasty, a High Priest of Amun-Re, Herihor, declared himself ruler. The custodians of the cult of the state god finally got what they had always yearned for—overtly and...
Assyrian attack on a town with archers and a wheeled battering ram, 865–860 BC.

Were the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel Ever Lost?

When examining the mysteries of the 8th century BC, all one has to do is look in the Bible or an ancient history book to realize that Assyria had no outside threats. The Hittites and Egyptians were a...

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