Petralona Cave - Greece

The human skull that challenges the Out of Africa theory

This is the account of the discovery of a skull that has the potential to change what we know about human evolution, and a suppression and cover-up which followed.   

In 1959, in an area called Chalkidiki in Petralona, Northern Greece, a shepherd came across a small opening to a cave, which became visible when a thick covering of snow finally melted.  He gathered a group of villagers to help him clear the entrance so they could go inside and explore.  They found a cave rich in stalactites and stalagmites. But they also found something surprising – a human skull embedded in the wall (later research also uncovered a huge number of fossils including pre-human species, animal hair, fossilized wood, and stone and bone tools).   

Petralona SkullThe skull was given to the University of Thessaloniki in Greece by the President of the Petralona Community. The agreement was that once the research was done, a museum would be opened featuring the findings from the Petralona cave, and the skull would be returned to be displayed in the museum – something that never happened.

Dr Aris Poulianos, member of the UNESCO's IUAES (International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences), later founder of the Anthropological Association of Greece , and an expert anthropologist who was working at the University of Moscow at the time, was invited by the Prime Minister of Greece to return to Greece to take a position of a University Chair in Athens.  This was due to the publication of his book, ‘The Origins of the Greeks’, which provides excellent research showing that Greek people didn’t originate from the Slavic nations but were indigenous to Greece.  Upon his return to Greece, Dr Poulianos was made aware of the discovery of the skull at Petralona, and immediately started studying the Petralona cave and skull.

The ‘Petralona man’, or Archanthropus of Petralona, as it has since been called, was found to be 700,000 years old, making it the oldest human europeoid (presenting European traits) of that age ever discovered in Europe. Dr Poulianos’ research showed that the Petralona man evolved separately in Europe and was not an ancestor of a species that came out of Africa. 

In 1964, independent German researchers, Breitinger and Sickenberg, tried to dismiss Dr Poulianos’ findings, arguing that the skull was only 50,000 years old and was indeed an ancestor that came from Africa.  However, research published in the US in 1971 in the prestigious Archaeology magazine, backed up the findings that the skull was indeed 700,000 years old.  This was based on an analysis of the cave’s stratigraphy and the sediment in which the skull was embedded.  Further research in the cave discovered isolated teeth and two pre-human skeletons dating back 800,000 years, as well as other fossils of various species.

Today, most academics who have analyzed the Petralona remains say that the cranium of the Archanthropus of Petralona belongs to an archaic hominid distinguished from Homo erectus, and from both the classic Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans, but showing characterists of all those species and presenting strong European traits.  A skull dating back 700,000 which is either Homo sapien or part Homo sapien is in direct conflict with the Out of Africa theory of human evolution.  

Petralona Man

Further excavations continued in the cave of Petralona with the participation of international researchers (46 specialists from 12 separate countries), which provided further proof of Dr Poulianos’ claims, including remarkable findings like fossilized pieces of wood, an oak leaf, animal hair and coprolites, which enabled accurate dating, as well as the almost continuous presence of stone and bone tools of the Archanthropus evolutionary stage, from the lower (750,000 years) to the upper (550,000 years) layers of sediment within the cave.

The research, after an interruption due to the dictatorship in Greece, continued up to 1983. It was then ordered by the government that all excavations at the site were forbidden to anyone, including the original archaeological team, and for 15 years nobody had access to the site or to the findings – no reason was provided by the government.  Was this denial of access to prevent the extraction of whatever new scientific conclusions remained hidden within the incredible fossils embedded within the layers of the caves’ walls? 

After the Anthropological Society of Greece took the case to the courts, 15 years later they were again allowed access to the cave.  Since then the Ministry of Culture is trying in any way to overcome the Courts decision and further trials proceed.

Aris PoulianosDr Poulianos’ findings contradicted conventional views regarding human evolution and his research was suppressed.  Dr Poulianos and his wife were physically attacked and injured in their home in 2012 and the culprits were never been found. He and his team have been denied further access to the cave to complete their research and study, and the whereabouts of the skull is now unknown.  

Today a sign sits outside the cave of Petralona stating that the skull found in the cave was 300,000 years old, and on Wikipedia today you will see references dismissing the evidence and trying to date the Petralona skull within acceptable parameters – between 160,000 and 240,000 years old.  

Recently, Professor C.G. Nicholas Mascie-Taylor of the University of Cambridge sent a letter to the Ministry of Culture in Greece saying that the correct date of the skull is 700,000 years old and not 300,000. He has also challenged the government’s suppression of information regarding this incredible discovery. 

The Greek Ministry of Education, Religions, Culture and Sports,

Bouboulinas 20-22,

Athens 106 82,


5 September 2012

Dear Sir,

I am writing on behalf of the European Anthropological Association, which is the umbrella professional and academic association linking all of the national European biological anthropology and human biology societies, to express our concerns about the conservation of the Petralona Cave and Skull, the misinformation of the dating of the skull, as well as the treatment of personnel associated with the conservation of the Cave.

The bases of our concerns are that the skull has been damaged through many scratches and the crown of a tooth (1st molar) cut off. As requested by Anthropological Association of Greece what is required is a detailed description of the present status of the skull, so that no one in future can arbitrarily damage it further. There is also the problem of dating which has been scientifically dated at about 700,000 years ago not 300,000 as is given at the information desk. There is a very detailed record of the excavations and findings which need to receive further public presentation but which have never been catalogued so as to prevent specimens going missing.

It is very unfortunate that the Greek Archaeological Department stopped Dr Aris Poulianos from further work in the Cave without any explanation. It is also very worrying that Dr Poulianos and his wife were physically attacked and injured in their home earlier this year and the culprits have not been found. He was also verbally abused when attempting to give an invited presentation to teachers and school children.

Senior anthropologists and geologists have also been denied access to the Cave and the specimens for further study on a number of occasions without substantive reasons. Earlier this year there has also been misinformation given to the Greek Parliament concerning financial aspects of the Cave.

I look forward to receiving answers to these questions.

Yours faithfully

Professor C G N Mascie-Taylor MA, PhD, ScD (all Cambridge), FSB, FNAS (Hungary)

Professor of Human Population Biology and Health and President of the European Anthropological Association


The most important conclusion of Dr Poulianos' research regards the co-existence of all main anthropological types (African – Kobi, Asian – Beijing and European – Petralona) at the same almost period (700,000, 500,000 and 750,000 respectively). That means: the appearance of the today human main populations (races or even better phyllae - from the Greek language and that’s why polyphyletic etc) is tending to almost 1,000,000 m.y.a. and not to only 10,000 or 30,000 years as currently considered world wide.

However, independently if there is a scientific dispute on the above, it is only sad to become aware that research is not allowed to those who are not coordinated to the “standard” knowledge, risking even their lives in front of gun shooters. 

Is this a cover up of an incredible discovery that the powers-that-be do not want us to have access to?  You be the judge.

By John Black

Related Links

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The Political Correct Ideology and their adherencees in Science and politics are aggressively protecting their belief system, worse than the Catholic Church in medieval times. The 'true believers' do everything to keep 'equalness' and Especially Africa equalness in the minds of white people, as they are targeted for extinction by bastardization. Everything touching their pet race stirrs them therefore up to maniacism. as PC has its its roots in communism you can see that irrational attitude in PC.

Recently Russian biologists tested DNA markers from Russians and Africans. They found there is no common DNA marker. The time to develope all this different DNA markers is to short for Homo sapiens stemming from one common ancestor.

As the differences provenly exists the conclusion they made was, that humans stem from different hominids. for Africans they suspect African archaic and for Euripids homo erectus and / or Neanderthal. Which would Europeans and Africans not only different races but different species. That offsprings of this bastardization are viable is also found in nature, for example between wolves and coyotes. So the argument with the viable offsprings is not a contradiction to the claim that they are different species. As you can see now, that the bastardization agenda aka 'equalness' has a terror reaction to the find, as it is proof that 'equalness' between 'races' (better species) does not exist and therefor there whole theology is based on false assumptions and therefore completely rubbish.

This find seems to add another possible ancestor for Europeans.

How vicious the PC followers are can be seen with the decommission of Prof.Watson, the Nobel prize winner for the DNA research, was attacked and had to resign over his remark of low IQ of Africans, for which exist massive scientific proof. That is the power of this ideology.

No, you're just looking for an excuse to treat Africans as subhuman. I'm amazed you can look yourself in the eye in your bathroom mirror every day.

All this means is we were mistaken about when humans began migrating from Africa. And you cannot say there is no genetic link between Russians and whatever other human group. We're all linked to one another in some way. Mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome DNA, whatever. We could not cross-breed if we were not the same species or very close to it.

Get over yourself. Whiteness is nothing more than an adaptation to less available winter sun and may not even be that--some people think it's a mutation borne of poor diet, since whiteness as a stable trait is only about 10,000 years old and would have coincided with the western agricultural revolution. Nothing to be prideful or boastful about. Nothing you need to protect. It is just a skin color. You should be more concerned with preserving your culture. If you still have one, and I doubt it--if there were anything interesting about your life at all, you wouldn't need to be a stinking racist.


pride is the sickness that keeps the huiman from improving...and that is on both sides of the issue. remember that you can not remove a spec from the other guys eye without first removing that big ole log from your own.
modern dna knowledge doesn't have to be the first time such knowledge and practices have occurred on the earth.... the earth has been recycling people and things for a lot longer than a simple walk about from one continent to another! earlier bones are being found all the time so too bad universities and etc.get so stuck in the mud of modern times but later on the guys will be digging up their bones and studying them too, so no worry...chop wood and carry water!... consider the idea of 'simultaneous inter-dependant originality'.

There is no racist requirement to observe whether nature provides one, two, or more lines of human development, nor would such division suggest that one group is superior or inferior. The idea that skin color is the only differential in race is unlikely.

Ocko, it appears to me that there is no such thing as massive proof that lower IQ scores in presenrt day racist and discriminatory societies have aything to do with racial superiority, but has a lot to do with racial discrimination, oppression, and subjugation based on which race dominates the political and economical sructure within societies.    I view IQ scores as being temporary assessments of how one performs in societies, given the fact, if they are all treated equally in a fair comparison.  From a historical point of view, there is “Massive Differences”  in the modern human cognitive skills between ancient Africans and their European counterparts, in that it were the Africans who built complex buildings such as pyramids in Nubia, Egypt etc, also the worlds first large water dams, aqueducts and tunnels, as well create the number 60 to establish time interms of seconds, minutes, hours,days, months and Lunar calendar years, while being the first to master astronomy.  When the discussion of IQ is being conducted, it is a fact that all timelines should be considered, and not just the period (s) that racist individuals like you refer to in efforts to incorrectly justify racial prejudices and never ending discrimination..Your so call massive IQ difference between African and European can only be compared to a racist sociological agenda.

Charles Bowles


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