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Buccaneers’ Brimstone, Booty, Brotherhood and Betel Nut

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The goal of a pirate of the West Indies was to capture his prey, with as little damage as possible, so that he could resell the vessel, including its cargo and crew. Therefore generally, the freebooters rarely used cannons to capture a vessel, so not to damage it. However, when they did use cannon, they used artillery pieces of various calibers.

Wager's Action off Cartagena, 28 May 1708 by Samuel Scott (Public Domain)

Wager's Action off Cartagena, 28 May 1708 by Samuel Scott (Public Domain)

Cannons On Board

The most common cannon calibers were four-pounders, six-pounders, and eight-pounders, but rarer on pirate ships were pieces of 12, 18, 24, found only on the frigates. Pieces of 32 were prevalent in large vessels of the Royal navies. The use of cannons implied not only knowledge of the weapons, but also the number of sailors serving the artillery force. Cristiano Bettini in his book Come progettavano i velieri  (How they designed sailing ships) reports that a four-pound cannon required a number of gunners equal to six. A 24-pound cannon required 12 skilled sailors. The maximum range of the largest calibers reached up to 2,000 meters, (1.2 miles) but the effective shot was reduced to no more than 500 meters. At this distance, the damage inflicted on hulls, crews and equipment was considerable and aimed primarily at rendering the opponent inert before capture, rather than sinking the prey itself.

Every piece of artillery was equipped with everything it needed: the sponge, the brush, the limestone, the powder horn, the firebox breaker, the aiming wedge and the iron crowbars. Everything was neatly arranged, ready to spit iron, smoke and flames at the enemy.  Sulphur, charcoal and saltpeter - the three components of gunpowder - were stowed in separate barrels on the ship, due to the movement of the vessel and all the shocks of rough seas and waves. One method of compacting the powder was to urinate on it or mix it with alcohol. A 17th-century ship was ultimately a giant floating explosive box. In fact, ships were largely constructed of wood, cordage and linen; they were waterproofed with pitch, tar, seed oil, greased tallow and tow - all flammable materials. In addition, these vessels often stored large quantities of seasoned lumber for repairs, wooden barrels for storing salted food and liquor, and last but not least, large quantities of gunpowder for cannons, rifles and pistols.


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Aaronne Colagrossi obtained a degree in Geological Sciences from the University of Molise with a thesis in geological survey and paleontology. His first novel, entitled Megalodon the perfect predator (2012), was inspired by the immense amount of data concerning the fossil sharks of central Italy.

Top Image: East Indiaman Kent battling Confiance, a privateer vessel commanded by French corsair Robert Surcouf in October 1800 by Ambroise Louis Garneray. (Public Domain)

By Aaronne Colagrossi



Aaronne Colagrossi was born in Campobasso in 1980.  Since childhood he has nurtured a deep passion for nature in all its forms, in particular for dinosaurs and sharks, the mysterious creatures of the sea. He obtained a degree in Geological... Read More

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