The Pharos Lighthouse Of Alexandria – Second Sun And Seventh Wonder Of The Ancient World
The Pharos lighthouse in Alexandria was constructed in the first two decades of the third century BC and it may have been nominated as one of the world’s Seven Wonders as early as the middle of the same century by the Alexandrian poet Callimachus in his book entitled A Collection of Wonders in the Whole World Organised by Place . Sadly, however, that wondrous work of literature is entirely lost and the earliest surviving manuscript to incorporate the Pharos among the Seven Wonders can only be traced back as far as the Gallic bishop, Gregory of Tours, writing in the sixth century AD. That makes it the last of the Wonders in the standard list to have been added, yet it was by no means the least: one can argue that it was the greatest.
Calamitous earthquakes in 1261 and 1303 seem to have been mainly responsible for the Pharos having almost entirely collapsed by the middle of the 14th century AD. The razing of the reality then led to a flowering of fantasy reconstructions over the ensuing centuries in the art and literature of the West. However, in 1909 Hermann Thiersch succeeded in re-instating some of the ancient evidence and produced the first modern reconstruction that bore any significant resemblance to the original structure.
Thiersch’s 1909 reconstruction of the Pharos with its pillared lantern and surrounding portico set in context at the mouth of the Great Harbor of Alexandria (Image: Courtesy Andrew Michael Chugg collection)
The Conundrum Of The Pink Columns
It is essentially Thiersch’s vision of the lighthouse that has dominated the public perception of this edifice for the past century right up to the present day. For example, Thiersch’s Pharos featured as a co-star in the 2009 movie Agora about the fourth century AD Alexandrian philosopher Hypatia. Nevertheless, it looks as though Thiersch misinterpreted two key aspects of the evidence: firstly, the relevance of the large numbers of ancient pink granite columns which he saw scattered around the modern site and secondly the nature of the light of the Pharos.
Mainly in order to provide an explanation for the columns, Thiersch invented a rectangular portico incorporating a forest of such pillars surrounding the base of the tower. However, firstly this prominent feature is entirely absent from every ancient image of the lighthouse and, secondly, such a portico would have obstructed the long approach ramp to the main portal of the Pharos, which stood at least a storey above ground level.
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Andrew Michael Chugg read Natural Sciences at Trinity College in the University of Cambridge in the UK, graduating with honors. He has appeared as an Alexander expert on BBC Radio, and in several National Geographic TV documentaries. He has also written various books on Alexander including Concerning Alexander the Great , The Quest for the Tomb of Alexander the Great and Alexander’s Lovers .
Top Image : Compilation of the overall appearance of the statue based on Greek and Roman statuettes of the Sun-God and corresponding reconstruction of the 120m (393 ft) tall tower, designed by ©Andrew Michael Chugg