Fingal’s Cave: A Spectacular Sea Cave of Irish Legends and Modern Inspiration
Fingal’s Cave is a natural feature located on the island of Staffa, in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. It has been stated that during the 18th century AD, Staffa was inhabited by 16 people. Today, however, no one lives on the island, and it would probably be left alone, if it were not for the existence of Fingal’s Cave.
This sea cave has been able to draw tourists to the deserted island due to several factors. Apart from being a geological marvel, Fingal’s Cave is also said to be an important site in Irish legends. Another of the cave’s claims to fame is that, despite being in an uninhabited part of the world, it has been visited by a number of well-known figures over the centuries, and that it had even served as the inspiration for a concert overture.
Fingal’s Cave has a height of about 22 m (72.18 ft.) and a depth of about 82 m (269.03 ft.). It has been speculated that Fingal’s Cave is over 50 million years ago. As the island of Staffa is situated in an area of volcanic activity, Fingal’s Cave was created due to lava flow. The cave is made up of three layers. The base consists of a layer of tuff, whilst the top is composed of a layer of basaltic lava lacking a crystalline structure. In between these two layers are interlocking colonnades (perhaps as many as 40,000) of black fine-grained Tertiary basalt.
Basalt columns inside Fingal's Cave. (CC BY-SA 2.0 )
It is due to these colonnades that Fingal’s Cave is considered as one of the most spectacular sea caves in the world. As the colonnades of lava in the middle layer cooled, they “contracted towards each of a series of equally spaced centers” and “solidified into prismatic columns”. The columns that were produced normally had between three to eight sides, with six being the most common.
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The lava flow that created the columns is said to have also been responsible for the formation of the Giant’s Causeway off the northeastern coast of Northern Ireland. It has also been suggested that at some point of time in the past, Fingal’s Cave and the Giant’s Causeway were connected by a ‘bridge’ of the same material. These two sites are not only connected due to geological similarities, but also through Irish legend. Both sites are, for one reason or another, connected to the name Fionn mac Cumhail, a renowned warrior in Irish legend.
Scotia Depicta - Fingal's Cave. ( Public Domain )
The Legend of the Giant’s Causeway
According to legend, the Giant’s Causeway was built by Fionn, who, though normally regarded as an ordinary-sized human, is depicted as a giant in this particular tale. This causeway was ‘constructed’ after Fionn was challenged to a fight by a Scottish giant, and served as a meeting point for the two men. During the 18th century, there was a popular poetic version of the legend of Fionn, written (or translated from an ancient Gaelic epic) by the Scottish poet, James Macpherson.
Fionn mac Cumhaill, illustration by Stephen Reid. ( Public Domain )
Naming the Cave
One of the men who had read Macpherson’s works was a British naturalist by the name of Sir Joseph Banks. It was because of Banks that the cave was discovered, or rather, rediscovered. In addition, it was also Banks who renamed the cave. The cave Banks found was originally called ‘Uamh-Binn’ (which means ‘Cave of Melody’) by the Celts. Influenced by Macpherson’s poems, Banks decided to call the cave Fingal’s Cave, Fingal being the Scottish form of Fionn mac Cumhail.
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Sir Joseph Banks, as painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1773. ( Public Domain )
Famous Visitors to Fingal’s Cave
Many famous people have travelled to this cave. This list includes royalty such as Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, writers such as Sir Walter Scott and Jules Verne, as well as poets such as William Wordsworth and John Keats. Many artists and musicians have also been inspired by the intensity of the cave.
Perhaps the visitor who made the biggest contribution to the fame of Fingal’s Cave is the German Romantic composer Felix Mendelssohn, who is recorded to have visited the island of Staffa in August 1829. Mendelssohn’s visit to the cave gave him the inspiration to compose a concert overture in the following year, which is aptly named The Hebrides , known alternatively as Fingal’s Cave .
Featured image: Fingal’s Cave, Island of Staffa, Scotland by Thomas Moran, 1884-5, High Museum of Art. Photo source: Public Domain
By Wu Mingren
Atlas Obscura, 2016. Fingal's Cave. [Online]
Available at: http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/fingal-s-cave
The BBC, 2010. Theory over famous Mendelssohn 'Fingal's Cave' overture. [Online]
Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-glasgow-west-12008512
The National Trust for Scotland, 2016. Staffa National Nature Reserve. [Online]
Available at: http://www.nts.org.uk/Property/Staffa-National-Nature-Reserve/Property-description
www.southernhebrides.com, 2016. Isle of Staffa and Fingals Cave. [Online]
Available at: http://www.southernhebrides.com/isle-of-staffa-and-fingals-cave/
www.staffatours.com, 2015. The Beginner's Guide to Fingal's Cave. [Online]
Available at: http://www.staffatours.com/blog/2015/the-beginners-guide-to-fingals-cave/