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This scene shows an"epicier" (grocer or seller of spices) talking with a client.	Source: Lawrence OP/CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

What Was ‘Middle Class’ in Medieval in England (Video)

In medieval England, societal structure was rigidly defined, determining everything from one's occupation to their social status and privileges. While the majority of the population consisted of...
Europe was changed after the Black Death ended. Source: Alexander / Adobe Stock.

What Happened After the Black Death Ended? (Video)

After the Black Death's devastating toll on Europe, survivors faced daunting challenges. The plague's aftermath brought about a stark transformation. The immediate impact was an economic crisis, with...
Medieval hoods. Source: Deivison / Adobe Stock.

Medieval Hoods: Why Everyone from Peasants to Nobles Had to Have Them (Video)

Medieval hoods were commonly worn across social classes, providing warmth and practicality. A distinguishing feature was the addition of a woolen cape , offering extra insulation. When the hood was...
The medieval peasant off to work in the fields. Source: Demian / Adobe Stock

The Hard and Dirty Life of a Medieval Peasant

The daily life of a medieval peasant in England and elsewhere was extremely difficult, long, and busy. They faced endless days of manual labor working on farmland starting as early as three in the...
Modern day uprising. Credit: Ciudalia / Adobe Stock

Uprisings After Pandemics: It Happened Before and May Happen Again

As a professor of medieval Europe, I’ve taught the bubonic plague, and how it contributed to the English Peasant Revolt of 1381. Now that America is experiencing widespread unrest in the midst of its...
Representation of life in medieval Europe at a vineyard. Source: ruskpp /Adobe Stock

How Bad was Life in Medieval Europe Really?

When we think about the life in medieval Europe, we tend to conjure up grim and dismal images of war, poverty, sickness, and the Dark Ages . But was it truly so dark? Is there more to it, or are we...
Screenshot from the movie 300 on the Spartan War which used Helots in combat on many occasions.

The Helots: Slave Warriors of Ancient Sparta

The ancient Greek city state of Sparta had a social hierarchy that was different from many of its neighbors. The top of the social pyramid was occupied by the two kings, whose powers were checked by...