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One of the woven silk bands.

Researchers Discover ‘Allah’ Inscribed in Vikings Burial Costumes

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Researchers from Sweden have discovered that Vikings had “Allah” and “Ali” embroidered into their funeral clothes, raising questions about the ties between the Islamic world and the Viking-era Scandinavians. Does that indicate that some Vikings had converted to Islam?

Swedish Archaeologist Noticed the words “Allah” and “Ali” on Viking Clothing 

BBC News reports that Arabic characters spelling the words "Allah" and "Ali" have been discovered on the burial costumes from Viking boat graves that had been kept in storage for over a hundred years. The silk patterns were initially believed to be common Viking Age decoration, but a re-examination by archaeologist Annika Larsson of Uppsala University revealed they were a geometric Kufic script. Larsson’s interest and curiosity was stimulated by the forgotten fragments after realizing the material had come from central Asia, Persia and China. "I couldn't quite make sense of them and then I remembered where I had seen similar designs - in Spain, on Moorish textiles," she told BBC News.

Textiles when examined closely revealed Kufic characters (Image: Annika Larsson )

Larsson soon noticed that there were two particular words that kept appearing repeatedly. She identified the name "Ali" with the help of an Iranian colleague, but it wasn’t as easy for them to decipher the word next to Ali. To decode the second word, Larsson enlarged the letters and examined them from all angles, including from behind, "I suddenly saw that the word 'Allah' [God] had been written in mirrored lettering," she told BBC News. Larsson also said that she has so far found the names on at least ten of the nearly 100 pieces she is working through, and they always appear together.

Reproduction of a medieval mosaic in Kufic script from Isfahan, Iran.

Reproduction of a medieval mosaic in Kufic script from Isfahan, Iran. (Public Domain)

Why these Viking burial clothes had inscriptions to Allah and Ali?

The presence of Islamic artifacts at Viking sites was once explained as evidence of looting and trade, but new finds continue to uncover closer ties between the two cultures. Experts suggest that the latest finding clearly shows similarities between the Viking and Muslim view of the afterlife. "This is a very important discovery because it tells us we can't view this historical period as 'typically Nordic'," Larsson told The Local. And added "It shows us that the Vikings were in close contact with other cultures, including with the Islamic world."

Furthermore, Larsson doesn’t dismiss the idea that some of these tombs could possibly belong to Muslims, “The possibility that some of those in the graves were Muslim cannot be completely ruled out. We know from other Viking tomb excavations that DNA analysis has shown some of the people buried in them originated from places like Persia, where Islam was very dominant,” she tells BBC News. However, she doesn’t believe that Vikings converted to Islam, but instead they were only influenced by Islamic ideas when it came to burial customs, “It is more likely these findings show that Viking age burial customs were influenced by Islamic ideas such as eternal life in paradise after death," Larsson added.

In 2015 archaeologists examined a ninth century ring from a Viking grave with ‘For Allah’ engraved on the colored glass stone. It came directly from the Seljuk culture of Asia Minor. (Photo by Christer Åhlin/The Swedish History Museum)

In 2015 archaeologists examined a ninth century ring from a Viking grave with ‘For Allah’ engraved on the colored glass stone. It came directly from the Seljuk culture of Asia Minor. (Photo by Christer Åhlin/The Swedish History Museum)

More Viking Artifacts with Arabic Influence

This is not the first time archaeologists have noticed a link between Vikings and Muslims. Two years ago, researchers re-examined a silver ring from a Viking-era grave in Birka, Sweden, and found the phrase "for Allah" inscribed in Kufic Arabic on the stone. As reported in a previous Ancient Origins article, that was the first ring with Arabic inscription from that era to be found in Scandinavia. The woman’s grave dated back to about 850 AD and also included items from India, the Caucasus or Yemen and possibly other locations. Archaeologists suggested that the ring may be a signet ring that was used to mark or stamp documents. The rare jewel was described by archaeologists as physical evidence that clearly indicates direct contact between the Vikings of Sweden and the Muslim world – in that case possibly Asia Minor.

Recent Discovery Could Provide Further Information

Back to 2017 and Larsson’s recent discovery, the Swedish archaeologist is being optimistic that the new find could offer a lot of information in the near future. “Now that I am looking at Viking patterns differently, I am convinced I will find more Islamic inscriptions in the remaining fragments from these excavations, and other Viking era textiles,” she tells BBC News. And adds, "Who knows? Maybe they appear in non-textile artefacts too." Ultimately, Larsson noted that she and her research team are currently working with the university's department for immunology, genetics and pathology in order to discover the geographic origins of the bodies dressed in the funeral clothes.

Top image: One of the woven silk bands. Image: Annika Larsson

By Theodoros Karasavvas



The vikings famously raided the coasts of Spain, which was mostly Muslim controlled under the Ummayad Andalusia and various small states throughout the viking age. There’s possible records of viking attacks in the Middle East and I think maybe Iran.

In fact, a semi-legendary group of viking raiders settled in Spain, converted to Islam, and became cheesemakers!

While it is well documented that the Vikings did engage in trade with the Islamic World (such as spices and slaves), I think it is a little farfetched to claim that they adopted significant aspects of Islamic culture and ideas.

First, the burial shroud lacks the ‘shadda’, ‘daggar alif’, and ‘ha’ strokes that you find in the word Allah. I think that this researcher may be misinterpreting her findings. Have you heard of a Rorschach test? This is the same thing in that people see different things depending on their perception.

Second, even if we accept this artifact at face value, it seems rather out of place. Are there any other artifacts that suggest contact with the Islamic World within its vicinity? How about within the same historical period? Can the cultural influence of Islam be demonstrated in other historical records such as Viking texts? When doing excavation, archaeologists usually try to place an artifact in a given time period and want to understand the historical context of an artifact. Why might there be a burial costume with an inscription of Allah on it? If the Vikings really did adopt Islamic religious and cultural beliefs, when was this and why did it happen? It is not good archaeology if we divorce an artifact from its historical context.

Also, if this really is an innovative finding, why has it not been addressed by scholars and expert in the study of Vikings? Surely this finding, if it is true would not be kept secret from the scholars and from the public? I recommend that you look at archaeologists such as Jason Colavito, Kenneth Feder. These are some great professional archaeologists that you should look into reading.

I think that there is actually a political motivation behind this, Dr. Larsson and her fellow researchers may want to make Europe seem like a more culturally diverse place. This stand is far different in comparison with how White Nationalists really love the Vikings. While this may be an honorable goal, it doesn’t justify bad archaeology.

Overall, I’m not convinced that this burial costume displays the word Allah; and I don’t think that there is any evidence that Islam had a profound impact on the cultural beliefs of the Vikings.

I hope that you continue finding new information and be sure to think with a critical eye.


Its not researching. Its political nonsens from Larsson. Similar pattern is found in Norway, dated 15-1600 years old. It´s unbeliveable researchers can present such nonsense as facts! ttps://

Many archeologists feel suspicious on this one. It's too controversial, it's like trying to see alphabetic characters in the spots of the Sun that are no there. You can google for "Experts Cast Doubt On Viking Textile With ‘Allah’ Inscription" on gizmodo for full story.

I've been reading about the connection between the Norse and the Middle East for years. the fact that some Persians traveled North and/or some Vikings converted to Islam is not surprising.

Theodoros Karasavvas's picture


Theodoros Karasavvas, J.D.-M.A. has a cum laude degree in Law from the University of Athens, a Masters Degree in Legal History from the University of Pisa, and a First Certificate in English from Cambridge University. When called upon to do... Read More

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