Genetic Breakthrough Changes the Way We View Skin Color
University College London / Science Daily
Skin color is one of the most visible and variable traits among humans and scientists have always been curious about how this variation evolved. Now, a study of diverse Latin American populations led by UCL geneticists has identified new genetic variations associated with skin color.
The study, published in the journal Nature Communications , found that the variation of light skin among Eurasian people evolved independently from different genetic backgrounds.
The genetic study analyzed pigmentation in over 6,000 Latin Americans, who have a mix of Native American, European, and African ancestry.
Skin color. (Luis Louro / Adobe)
It is well established that Native Americans are genetically closely related to East Asians, the initial settlement of the Americas occurring some 15-20,000 years ago, through migration from Eastern Siberia into North America. As a consequence, genetic variations in Native Americans are often shared with East Asians.
Five Regions Studied
This study identifies five new associated regions involving skin, eye, and hair color. Genes affecting skin color in Europeans have been extensively studied, but here researchers identified an important variation in the gene MFSD12 seen uniquely in East Asians and Native Americans.
They show it was under natural selection in East Asians after they split from Europeans around 40,000 years ago and was then carried over to America by ancient migrations of Native Americans. It is the first time this gene has been linked to skin color in Native Americans and East Asians.
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Study sample showing part of the CANDELA cohort ascertained in five Latin American countries. (Nature Communications / UCL)
Dr. Kaustubh Adhikari (UCL Genetics Institute), said:
"Our work demonstrates that lighter skin color evolved independently in Europe and East Asia. We also show that this gene was under strong natural selection in East Asia, possibly as adaptation to changes in sunlight levels and ultraviolet radiation."
Human physical diversity has fascinated biologists for centuries and despite the discovery of hundreds of genes related to such variation, there is still a lot to be understood in order to gain a fuller picture. Scientists have been calling for more diversity in genetics research to ensure that everyone benefits from the medical outcomes of research.
New Variant Discovered
Only recently, scientists published the first major study on the genes linked to skin tone diversity in Africa. Latin Americans are similarly underrepresented in genetics research, in particular in pigmentation research.
"It is commonly thought that variation in pigmentation, such as skin color, in Latin Americans primarily arises due to people's varying degree of European or African ancestry. But our new study shows that there is variation inherited from their Native ancestors as well", said Dr. Javier Mendoza-Revilla (UCL Genetics Institute).
Professor Desmond Tobin (Charles Institute of Dermatology, University College Dublin) explained:
"The pigment melanin determines our hair, skin, and eye color. This gene MFSD12 influences how melanin is produced and stored in the skin, thus affecting our skin color. A darker skin produces more melanin, which can help prevent UV light from damaging our DNA and so offers protection against skin cancer."
What the Study Concluded
"Interestingly, this gene also turned up in the skin color study in Africans, but the variants were entirely different than those we observe in our study, highlighting the huge genetic diversity in humans and the need to diversify our study populations", emphasized Professor Andres Ruiz-Linares (UCL Genetics Institute), who led the CANDELA project spanning participants from five countries: Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru.
Extended colored family from South Africa showing some spectrum of human skin coloration. (Obersachse / Public Domain )
In addition to skin tone variation, the scientists also noted a wide variation in eye color among Latin Americans. "Just like skin color, early research on eye color was Europe-centric and mostly focused on the distinction between blue vs. brown eyes. But we show that eye color is a broad continuum, and by studying the subtler variation within brown to black, we found two new genes linked to it", said Dr. Anood Sohail (University of Cambridge).
The study's findings help explain the variation of skin, hair, and eye color of Latin Americans, shed light on human evolution and inform an understanding of the genetic risk factors for conditions such as skin cancer.
Summary of findings from study. (Nature Communications / UCL)
Top image: Portrait of three girls of different nationalities. Source: deniskomarov / Adobe
The article, originally titled ‘ Genetic study provides novel insights into the evolution of skin color ’ was first published on Science Daily.
Source: University College London. "Genetic study provides novel insights into the evolution of skin color." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 January 2019. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190121103338.htm
Kaustubh, A; Mendoza-Revilla, J; Sohail, A; Fuentes-Guajardo, M; Lampert, J; Chacón-Duque, J; Hurtado, M; Villegas, V; Granja, V; Acuña-Alonzo, V; Jaramillo, C; Arias, W; Lozano, R; Everardo, P; Gómez-Valdés, J; Villamil-Ramírez, H; Silva de Cerqueira, C; Hunemeier, T; Ramallo, V; Schuler-Faccini, L; Salzano, F; Gonzalez-José, R; Bortolini, M; Canizales-Quinteros, S; Gallo, C; Poletti, G; Bedoya, G; Rothhammer, F; Tobin, D; Fumagalli, M; Balding, D; Ruiz-Linares, A. ‘ A GWAS in Latin Americans highlights the convergent evolution of lighter skin pigmentation in Eurasia .’ Nature Communications, 2019. [Online] Available at: 10.1038/s41467-018-08147-0