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This is a comparison graph comparing the height of a 1.8-meter-tall human male with Gigantopithecus species. This graph is based on orangutan proportions in a bipedal stance. It is most likely that Gigantopithecus would have spent most of its time in a quadrupedal stance on all fours.

The REAL Bigfoot: Gigantopithecus Would Have Been Terrifying to our Ancient Ancestors

From legends of Bigfoot to films like Mighty Joe Young, humans seem to have a fascination with giant ape-like creatures. This leads to the question of whether stories about giant apes have a basis in reality. Although the evidence for Bigfoot is ambiguous, there is fossil evidence for very large apes living in the past, particularly Gigantopithecus, a genus that once lived in China and Southeast Asia.

Discovering an Ancient “Bigfoot”

Gigantopithecus was first discovered when a paleontologist found a molar belonging to a giant ape while examining bones said to be dragon bones in a Chinese apothecary. After the discovery of the molar, hundreds of other teeth were revealed that apparently belonged to a mysterious giant ape with yellowish-stained teeth. Because of the color, it was dubbed “yellow earth fauna.”

Holotype (molar) of Giganthopithecus blacki, in the background Prof. Friedemann Schrenk, Senckenberg-Institut, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Holotype (molar) of Giganthopithecus blacki, in the background Prof. Friedemann Schrenk, Senckenberg-Institut, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

In 1956, a jaw belonging to the creature was discovered by a Chinese farmer which gave paleontologists a better understanding of the nature of Gigantopithecus. Since its discovery, scientists have learned much more about this mysterious ape. It probably first evolved about 9 million years ago in China and did not become extinct until about 300,000 years ago, the time of Homo Heidelbergensis . Based on comparison with the tooth size to body size ratio in modern ape species, paleontologists estimate that a member of a Gigantopithecus species could have been up to 10 feet ( meters) tall and probably weighed as much as 1,200 lbs ( kg). For comparison, gorillas usually weigh no more than 400 lbs ( kg). 

Restoration of G. blacki. (CC BY SA 4.0) Bamboo.

Restoration of G. blacki. ( CC BY SA 4.0 ) Bamboo. ( CC0)

The range of Gigantopithecus appears to have been restricted to China and Southeast Asia, and parts of India. Based on studies of the teeth, it most likely the creature ate fruit as well as shrubs and grasses, such as bamboo. It is possible that Gigantopithecus had an ecological role similar to that of the giant panda, subsisting primarily on bamboo and supplementing its diet with roots and fruit.

Since only its jaws and teeth have actually been found, it is not possible to determine the exact appearance of Gigantopithecus. Based on its predicted weight, size, and shared ancestry with knuckle-walking apes such as gorillas, paleontologists believe that it was most likely a knuckle-walker with quadrupedal locomotion.

Lower mandible of Gigantopithecus blacki (cast). In the collections of The College of Wooster, Ohio.

Lower mandible of Gigantopithecus blacki (cast). In the collections of The College of Wooster, Ohio. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

Causes of Extinction

Although the genus was relatively long-lived, lasting almost 9 million years, the last of the genus went extinct about 300,000 yeas ago. One reason for this may have been that Gigantopithecus had a very specialized diet - meaning that it could only subsist on certain foods. If the main source of food for the ape disappeared, Gigantopithecus would not have easily switched to a different food source.

Bamboo, for example, has regular massive die offs every couple of decades. An animal heavily dependent on bamboo for food, such as the giant panda, would be at risk of starvation every time this occurred. Furthermore, if an unusually long time-interval between the die-off and the rebound of the bamboo population occurred, an already small animal population might even be at risk of extinction. Examination of Gigantopithecus teeth indicates that there were prolonged periods of malnourishment in which Gigantopithecus populations did not have regular access to food, which may well have been caused by these periodic die-offs of bamboo.

Restoration of Gigantopithecus blacki as appeared at "Gigants" exhibition in the Czech Republic, 2014.

Restoration of Gigantopithecus blacki as appeared at "Gigants" exhibition in the Czech Republic, 2014. (Michal Mañas/ CC BY 4.0 )

In addition to food shortages, Gigantopithecus also appears to have matured slowly based on studies of the development of fossilized teeth, implying that it had a low reproduction rate. Thus, if a large percentage of the population died from starvation, it would take a long time for the population to recover and increase the risk of extinction.

Additionally, Gigantopithecus would have had to compete with Homo Erectus and possibly giant pandas if bamboo made up a large part of their diet. Competition with other animals combined with the other factors and may have helped lead to their final extinction in the late Pleistocene.

Homo erectus skull, Museum of Natural History, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Homo erectus skull, Museum of Natural History, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. ( CC BY SA 2.0 )

Bigfoot’s Ancestor?

Paleontologists say that Gigantopithecus has been extinct for hundreds of thousands of years, but not everyone is convinced that the giant ape is completely gone. There is a popular theory among bigfoot enthusiasts that the legendary ape actually represents an expansion of Gigantopithecus into North America. According to this theory, a species of Gigantopithecus survived and was able to make it across the Bering Strait land bridge to colonize North America.

Although this is a popular idea, there are some problems with it. The first is that Gigantopithecus is only found in Asia, mainly China and Southeast Asia. There is no fossil evidence that suggests it ever reached North America. In fact, there is no evidence that any ape, let alone a giant ape, lived in North America before the arrival of Homo Sapiens . Another problem is that all the evidence indicates that the diet of Gigantopithecus was very specialized, consisting mostly of grasses, possibly bamboo, and shrubs - which means they were only able to live in specific environments.

For Gigantopithecus to have made it to North America, they would have needed to survive in many different environments - including harsh tundra and glacial settings. Bigfoot sightings occur in almost every North American climatic zone, ranging from cold temperate to subtropical. This makes it unlikely that Gigantopithecus is the animal behind Bigfoot. The prehistoric ape was probably much less adaptable than the lovable, ever elusive Bigfoot and would not have been able to adapt to many different environments so easily.

Bigfoot in the Patterson-Gimlin Film.

Bigfoot in the Patterson-Gimlin Film. ( YouTube Screenshot )

Additionally, Gigantopithecus was most likely quadrupedal. Their large body size would have made it difficult for them to walk on two legs. Also, since all their closest living relatives are quadrupedal, the idea that they were quadrupedal is better friends with Occam’s razor and thus more likely. So far, the only apes to evolve bipedalism have been hominins, humans, and their most recent ancestors. Most apes are quadrupedal. It is possible that another form of bipedalism evolved in apes, which was exactly like the one that evolved in humans, but this is a pretty unlikely scenario in evolutionary biology. Usually, you will not get the exact same derived trait along two different evolutionary lines.

Although Gigantopithecus is most likely not related to Bigfoot, it is like the legendary creature in that it was a giant ape. It could be said that the story of an ape-like forest dwelling giant is essentially true, but with a twist. There was a real sasquatch, but he died 300,000 years ago. Rest in peace Bigfoot!

Top Image: This is a comparison graph comparing the height of a 1.8-meter-tall human male with Gigantopithecus species. This graph is based on orangutan proportions in a bipedal stance. It is most likely that Gigantopithecus would have spent most of its time in a quadrupedal stance on all fours. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

By Caleb Strom

References

Simons, Elwyn L., and Peter C. Ettel. "Gigantopithecus."  Scientific American  222.1 (1970): 76-87.

Ciochon, R. 1991. The ape that was.  Natural History  November: 54-62.

Ciochon, Russell L., Dolores R. Piperno, and Robert G. Thompson, 1990b. Opal phytoliths found on the

teeth of the extinct ape  Gigantopithecus blacki : Implications for paleodietary studies.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 87:  8120-8124.

Ciochon, Russel L., John Olsen, and Jamie James, 1990a.  Other Origins: The Search for the Giant Ape in Human Prehistory.  New York: Bantam Books.

Ciochon, R.;  et al.  1996. “Dated Co-Occurrence of  Homo erectus  and Gigantopithecus from Tham Khuyen Cave, Vietnam”.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  93 (7): 3016–3020.

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