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Babak Khorramdin

Babak Khorramdin – The Freedom Fighter of Persia


The Umayyad- and Abbasid Caliphate of the Arabs had invaded and occupied the Sassanid Persian empire for 144 years when in 10 July 795 AD, a child was born in a village called Balal Abad situated near modern day Ardabil in northwestern Iran. This child would grow up to become the most prominent rebel leader of the Persians and he would create the largest rebel force the Arabs had ever faced anywhere in the Islamic Caliphate. He fought the invading Arabs for regaining control over Persian territories in order to liberate the Persian people and to restore Persian culture. He would be known as Babak Khorramdin.

Babak lost his father Merdas in his early childhood which resulted in him taking on the responsibility of his family, including his mother and his two younger brothers. His mother Mahrou worked as a nurse for infants while Babak himself worked as a cowherd until he was twelve years old. By the age of eighteen he was already involved in arms trade and business. He enjoyed music and singing and learned to play the Persian string instrument called tambour. A number of stories have been told about him. One story says that Babak was sleeping under a tree during an afternoon when his mother saw his hair and chest drenched in blood. But when his mother quickly woke him up and he stood on his feet, all blood had vanished and he was unharmed. Based on what she had witnessed, she told Babak that he had a great task ahead of him.

Babak Khorramdin

Babak Khorramdin

The Khorramian sect

One winter day, a wealthy man named Javidan Shahrak was on the way home from the city of Zanjan where he had gained the leadership of a Persian rebel group called the Khorramian sect established in the nearby highlands. Due to a violent snow storm, Javidan couldn't continue his journey and had to find shelter. By chance, he found the home of Babak and knocked on the door. His mother welcomed him into their home and lit a fire for him. During his stay, Babak took care of Javidan's horses and showed good manners towards the guest. His level of intelligence impressed Javidan and when the time had come for Javidan to leave, he asked Mahrou whether he could take Babak with him to work in his farms. Javidan also promised her that he would send plenty of money. She accepted his request and by this event, Babak joined the Khorramian rebel group and Javidan became Babak's role model and teacher. After some time, Babak gained the name Khorramdin, meaning of the delightful faith referring to the pre-islamic religion Zoroastrianism which is the ancient native religion of Persia.

As the leader of the Khorramian rebel group, Javidan fought the Arabs alongside Babak Khorramdin around their strong hold in northwestern Persian between the years 807-817 AD until Javidan became wounded in a battle and died in 817 AD. By the time Javidan died, Babak had learnt how to use geostrategic locations, to apply various military tactics and to lead troops. Javidan had chosen Babak as his successor and leader of the Khorramian sect before he died. Multiple rebel groups were scattered throughout the cities of Persia by the time Babak became a leader. Eventually Babak married Banu Khorramdin, the former wife of Javidan who was a female warrior and who fought side by side Babak and his men. Members of the Khorramian group wore red clothes and therefore they were known as sorkh jamegan among people, meaning the red clothed ones.

Beginning of the Rebellion

The same year as Javidan died, Babak started to motivate his followers to come together and to start a rebellion against the Arab Caliphate, and so the rebellion of the Persians begun. Babak started to recruit farmers and rebel leaders from all around Persia and ordered them to go to arms and to spread fear in the eyes of the Arabs. Babak's popularity increased rapidly and thousands of people joined his movement. There are different accounts of the number of people who joined his rebel army but the number is estimated to be between 100 000 – 300 000 people strong. The army mainly consisted of farmers and when Babak recruited these men, he also trained them for battles. He ordered his men to raid caravans along the Silk Road, to destroy Arab strongholds and to seize villages, which in turn contributed to loss of control in many provinces ruled by the Arabs.

Statue of Babak Khorramdin from Southern Azerbaijan

Statue of Babak Khorramdin from Southern Azerbaijan (Wikimedia Commons)

In 819 AD, full scale battles between Persians and Arabs were initiated. The Caliphate continuously ordered Arab generals to fight Babak. An Arab general named Yahya ibn Mu'adh was sent to fight the Khorramian rebel group, but failed to defeat Babak. During two years time, armies under the command of Isa ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Khalid continuously attacked Babak's forces with no success. In 824 AD, Ahmad ibn al Junayd attacked the Khorramian rebel group but ended up captured by Babak. In 827 AD, the Arabs under the command of Muhammad ibn Humayd Tusi attacked and became victorious but could not capture Babak and his closest men. In 829 AD, Babak returned to restore his strongholds and defeated Muhammad ibn Humayd Tusi who ended up getting killed while his Arab army suffered heavy losses.

The stronghold of the Khorramian rebel group was the Castle of Babak which is situated on an altitude of 2600 metres on the mountain Badd. The castle is surrounded by mountains and ravines which during ancient times provided protection from invading troops. A handful of Khorramian soldiers could easily wipe out thousands of enemies and the castle was impossible to invade during winter seasons. It was built during the Sassanid dynasty (224 AD-651 AD) with foundations built during the Parthian dynasty (247 BC-224 AD). As the brilliant war lord that he was, Babak Khorramdin took full advantage of the strategic location of the castle which had an important role in the numerous victories he had against the Arab generals.

Castle of Babak. Today the castle ruins are visited by Iranians and tourists all year round.

Picture: Castle of Babak. Today the castle ruins are visited by Iranians and tourists all year round. (Source:

In 835 AD, the caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate named al Mu'tasim ordered his best general to confront Babak Khorramdin and to capture him. His name was Haydar ibn Kavus Afshin and was chosen as the governor of the area where Babak was active. He had been a former compatriot of Babak. In the early days of the Persian rebellion, Afshin made an oath together with Babak to cooperate and defeat the Arab armies and to bring back the power of Persia to the hands of the former Sassanid monarchs. By this time, after 18 years of Persian revolts, Afshin had treacherously started to cooperate with the Arabs in exchange for excessive riches, benefits and to be the head general of the Caliphate army. With the help and resources provided by the caliph, Afshin ordered Arab strongholds, which had been destroyed by Babak and his men, to be rebuilt and reinforced. Al Mu'tasim on the other hand managed to capture one of Babak's men which by torture was forced to exploit information about Babak's tactics, territorial strategies and about hidden pathways. Shortly before Afshin attacked the Castle of Babak, Babak had sent a letter to the Byzantine emperor Theophilus in request for military enforcements but the letter did not reach the emperor in time. Babak and his men had to evacuate the castle and flee. Babak himself together with his wife and a few soldiers fled to Armenia while Afshin plundered and thereafter demolished the castle. While Babak was in the custody of the Armenian prince Sahl ibn Sonbāt, the prince was informed about the large reward for finding Babak. Afshin was informed about Babak's presence in Armenia and he sent a large army to Sahl ibn Sonbāt's residence and captured Babak.

Arrest of Babek Khorramdin (c.a. 800 AD), 2009 Tehran

Arrest of Babek Khorramdin (c.a. 800 AD), 2009 Tehran (Shahab Mousavizadeh)

Babak Khorramdin was held in the presence of the caliph in the city of Samarra and was sentenced to death in 838 AD. Before he was executed, his hands and feet were cut off and it is said that in his agony, Babak washed his face with blood pouring out of his cuts. When the caliph asked him what he was doing, Babak answered that he wouldn't let the Arabs see his pale face when he was dead so that they wouldn't think he died with fear of the Arabs. He was decapitated and his head was later sent around the cities of Persia in order to spread fear among Iranians. His body was hanged on the walls of Samarra.

For 21 years, Babak Khorramdin successfully lead a major rebellion which brought the Arabs to their knees one battle after another. Ultimately, he wasn't defeated by the Caliphate but by treacherous allies. He will always be remembered as the Persian hero who sacrificed his life for freedom and his cultural heritage. He was a brilliant leader and is very much alive today in the minds of Iranians just as he was back in time. Today Iranians visit the ruins of his castle 10 July every year to honor the great legend and his men.

Top image: Artist’s depiction of Babak Khorramdin. Screenshot from YouTube video ‘Babak the Hero


Babak Khorfamdin: True Iranian National Hero. Available from:

Babak Khoframdin: Patriot and Revolutionary. Available from:

By Mahbod Khanbolouki



Mahbod is an scholar. Every literate person knows that Babak was Persian who defended Iran aginst Arab invaders. The igonrant people, like Shehi, do not know that republic of Azarbaijan was part of Iran, and it was during Qajar Dynasty, some decaded ago, that some part of Azrabaijan was seperated from Iran and annaxed to Riassia. Later, when when Formwe Soviet Collapsed, Azarbaijan and many other countries like Tajikestan ete gained their indipendence. I recmoned dogmatic people like you to study more. Fortunatle, Iran histroy is so briulinat and it has such famous celebrities that certin people tre ti steal them, but they cannt. Just they annoy themselves.

Mahbod Khanbolouki's picture

Actually, you don't have any truthful sources at all to back up your claims with so don't build up an illusion for yourself. You only have propagandic views from your side which me and other historians take as bias. 

People has always tried to steal Iranian history and forcefully make it their own but failed, and you're just one of them and you're failing too buddy. You've started a debate you'll never win due to that I have facts on my side, which in my eyes is ridiculously amusing to see how you twist and turn in internaly emotional agony haha! Don't be jealous and sad because you don't have any own history. Your whole Azari culture is based on Iranian culture. It is even a lesser known copy of Iranian culture so you should be really thankful., but instead you're disrespectful. You must hate it when jealousy takes the overhand. 

But brainwashing is a serious issue in Azarbaijan, claiming both Iranian factors and also Armenian factors. No wonder Armenians hate you, we understand them. When an ignorant propaganda fed keyboard-warrior like you calls an author who bases his claims and texts on facts and evidence "semi-illiterate", just proves how much nonsense and biased information is in your mind. I pitty you, seriously.

Just to teach you some more: 

"Babak Khorramdin (c 795/798-838) was born to a Zoroastrian family of Azerbaijan close to the city of Artavilla (modern Ardabil) in north-western Iran and the southwest Caspian region. The name Babak (also Papak) was the name of the founder of the Sassanian dynasty c 200 CE."

"Babak's campaign, however, was not just a military campaign but one to restore the Persian language and culture"

"Babak Khorrami (bābak khorramī - d. January, 838), Persian leader of the Khorramdini or Khorrami uprising in Northwest of Iran in the early 9th century which engaged the forces of the Arab caliph for twenty years before it was crushed in 837."


"Bābak Khorramdin (Formally known as "Pāpak" meaning "Young Father") (Persian: بابک خرمدین‎‎, alternative spelling: Pāpak Khorramdin; 795, according to some other sources 798— January 838[9]) was one of the main Persian[3][10][5][6][7][8] revolutionary leaders of the Iranian[11]Khorram-Dinān[12] ("Those of the joyous religion"), which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate."

If you still remain confused and act like you're a simple fool after all evidence, I'll keep on going. Entertain me ;)



Hey Turk,
On what historic account are you claiming Babak was a Muslim and was Turkish? Do you even happen to know when Turks, of any sect, invaded GREAT IRAN? Do you have any idea in your right mind what the name of Azerbaijan was 200 years ago?

Lack of knowledge is the worst disaster that can happen for a person and it seems that you are suffering from it. Study more and do not make hallucinations.

I don't need Azerbaijani propaganda, as I am Azerbaijani. Great to see an Iranian semi-illiterate to claim ownership of Babek, as you did the same for decades for Nizami Ganjavi.

So called "Atropadegan" is the early name of "Atropatena" (Atropatene in English) which evolved to the word "Azerbaijan" nowadays, so yea, there is no "todays Azerbaijan" - we are the same people. Yes, the satrapy (region) was ruled under Darius The Second, but it doesn't mean it was Persian. And when Alexander the Great invaded, Atropatene was the first to liberate itself and sign agreement with Alexander, as a result of which it remained independent. Much later in 5th century CE, Azerbaijan was still independent and had independent Caucasian identity of its own, with Caucasian Albania ruling the lands. Only after when Persians and Romans started to kick each others asses, Albania first fell to Romans, and subsequently to Persians. The people of the land were speaking the language called "Azeri" which became extinct around 5th century CE (we call our language Azerbaijani, for Historical and Political correctness reasons). The very word "Azer" itself means "Fire", originating from Fire-diety of the region.

So fast forward to Babek era: the man lived in the same lands, whose activities stretched from Ardabil in south to Shemakha in north and Caspian sea on east and Nakhchevan to the west. Modern Armenian sources name him as Bab, Baban; whereas Persians such as yourself name him Papak, however the actual historian who was Babek's contemporary - Al-Masudi - has recorded his name as Hasan and his brother as Abdullah. Even his parents' names, occupations and lives, and how they died have been recorded in Masudi's chronicles.

Not to mention, with 1828's Turkmenchay Treaty (sorry I mixed it with Gulustan Treaty in my original post), Iranians separated Azerbaijan's lands into two, occupying the southern part of it (the south of Araz river). So clearly you'd be extremely biased about this topic. At least, in contrary to your claims, I have historical records to back my arguments up. And today, many international encyclopedias, including Great Russian Encyclopedia, cite Babek's name as Hasan, according to actual historical records.

I could go on and on about my country's history, which would only extend this comment needlessly. I will leave that to your Persian mind to suck it up.


Mahbod Khanbolouki's picture


Mahbod Khan Bolouki was born 1989 in Helsingborg, Sweden. He is the oldest child of two brothers. Early in his childhood he developed a big interest for music and science. He started to play the guitar when he was 6 years old... Read More

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