Damaidi rock art at Helan Mountain in Ningxia, China. Source: Rita Willaert/CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Is 8,000-year-old Damaidi Rock Art the Origin of Chinese Writing?


The Chinese writing system is by far one of the most complex in the world, and its origins are truly ancient. In fact, ​​Chinese characters are the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world, a fact that alone makes them very, very special. It is thus only natural to ask the question: where did these characters originate? A system of writing that is so complex and unique surely has to have a special place of provenance. Some scholars believe that the characters first came to existence amongst the Damaidi petroglyphs - ancient drawings carved in stone that reach far, far back in time. Are they the key to the riddle?

Searching for the Origins: The Enigma of Damaidi Rock Art

Damaidi rock art, also known as the Damaidi petroglyphs, are a collection of stunning ancient rock carvings found in China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. They are situated close to the village of Damaidi, which is set amid the Weining Mountains on the north bend of the famed Yellow River . These carvings have been dated to between 6,000 and 8,000 years before present and depict a wide variety of images, including animals, humans, and abstract symbols . The images are carved into local cliffs, and in total there are 3,172 sets of early Chinese petroglyphs , all of which feature 8,453 individual figures. These are stunning numbers, indicating that the site was filled with art over many generations.

The engravings (right of center) depict human figures, animals and symbols. The human figures portray scenes of hunting, herding, sacrificing, battle, dance and procreation. Writing to the left i. ( Rita Willaert/ CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 )

In recent years, however, there has been increasing speculation that the Damaidi petroglyphs may be the point of origin of Chinese characters , whose actual provenance has long been a matter of debate. Supporters of this theory point to the similarities between some of the abstract symbols found in the Damaidi carvings and certain Chinese characters, as well as the fact that the carvings predate the earliest known examples of Chinese writing by several millennia. Another contributing factor is the repetition of numerous of the depicted carvings, indicating that they had a meaning, and could have been - in fact - letters.

While it is certainly possible that the Damaidi carvings influenced the development of Chinese characters, the idea that they are the direct origin of the writing system is highly speculative and not supported by any concrete evidence. As such, the theory has long been debated by the leading global scholars.

There are thousands of images and symbols in the Damaidi petroglyph collection. (

An Enigma Without a Solution

Those opposing the theory had stated that the Damaidi symbols are not organized in any recognizable way as a proper writing system. While there are certainly abstract symbols that resemble some Chinese characters, there is no clear pattern to their arrangement or use that would suggest that they were used for writing.

Furthermore, while the Damaidi carvings are undeniably ancient and significant for Chinese history as a whole, they are not the only examples of very early Chinese writing . The earliest known examples of Chinese writing come from the Shang Dynasty , which began around 1600 BC, several millennia after the Damaidi carvings were made. These early examples of Chinese writing are already highly developed, with complex characters that show clear evidence of a long period of evolution.

It is thus certainly possible that the Damaidi carvings influenced the development of Chinese writing in some way. The ancient Chinese may have been inspired by the abstract symbols they saw in the carvings, or they may have adapted some of the shapes and forms they saw into their own writing system. Then again, the carvings could have been the “prototypes” of a writing system in its infancy. However, to claim that the Damaidi carvings are the sole and exclusive origin of Chinese characters is to ignore the vast body of evidence that shows how the Chinese writing system evolved over a long period of time, through a complex process of borrowing, adaptation, and innovation.

In the end, while the Damaidi rock art is a fascinating and important part of China’s historic heritage, it is not the key to unlocking the mysterious origins of Chinese characters. Rather, it is just one small piece in a much larger puzzle that has been shaped by countless influences and factors over thousands of years. Of course, to further understand the question of whether the Damaidi rock art is the origin of Chinese characters, it is important to delve deeper into the history of Chinese writing.

The Origins of World’s Literacy

Chinese characters have a long and complex history, with various theories on their origins and development. Some scholars believe that the writing system was invented independently by the ancient Chinese, while others suggest that it was influenced by the writing systems of world’s pioneering civilizations, such as the Babylonians, Egyptians, and Phoenicians.

As we mentioned, the earliest known examples of Chinese writing are found on oracle bones from the Shang Dynasty, which itself lasted from around 1600 BC to 1046 BC. These bones were used for divination, and the inscriptions on them include questions asked by the diviners and answers given by the ancestors or spirits being consulted. The characters used in these inscriptions are already highly developed, with clear evidence of a long and stable period of evolution.

Oracle bone from the Bīn group of diviners from period I, corresponding to the Shang dynasty. (National Museum of China, CC0)

Oracle bone from the Bīn group of diviners from period I, corresponding to the Shang dynasty. (National Museum of China, CC0)

By the time of the Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC - 256 BC), the Chinese writing system had become even more complex, with thousands of characters in use. During this period, the Chinese also began using bamboo strips to write on, which allowed for longer texts to be recorded. It was not until the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC), however, that a truly standardized system of writing was established. This system, known as “seal script”, was based on the characters used in the Qin state and was used for official documents and inscriptions.

From this brief overview, it is clear that the development of Chinese writing was a long and complex process that was shaped by a variety of cultural, historical, and technological factors. While the Damaidi rock art may have played a role in this process, it is unlikely to have been the sole direct origin of Chinese characters.

Nevertheless, the Damaidi carvings are still an important historical site, providing insight into the culture and beliefs of ancient Chinese peoples. They offer a glimpse into truly ancient history, and serve as a reminder of the rich and complex history of China - a history that scholars are still unraveling!

Top image: Damaidi rock art at Helan Mountain in Ningxia, China. Source: Rita Willaert/ CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
By Aleksa Vučković


Unknown. 2005. Mystery of Ancient Carvings Lives On. Available at:

Unknown. 2007. Chinese writing '8,000 years old'. Available at:​​
Yuxia, Y. 2007. Carvings may rewrite history of Chinese characters. China View. Available at:

Aleksa Vučković's picture


I am a published author of over ten historical fiction novels, and I specialize in Slavic linguistics. Always pursuing my passions for writing, history and literature, I strive to deliver a thrilling and captivating read that touches upon history's most... Read More

Next article