Sacrifices of Cain and Abel. Fresco from Chiesa di San Lorenzo in Palatio ad Sancta Sanctorum, Rome.

Dwelling in the Land of Nod – Was it a Real City?


The Land of Nod is not just a place we go to catch a few winks but was mentioned in Genesis as the place where Cain, the firstborn son of Adam and Eve, was cast away after murdering his brother Abel. Although the Land of Nod is mentioned only once, it has intrigued Biblical scholars for centuries – was it a real place, and if so, where was it?

The Story of Cain and Abel

The story of Cain and Abel is found in Genesis 4:1-15. In brief, Cain and Abel were the sons of Adam and Eve , the first man and woman created by God. The older brother Cain became a farmer while the younger Abel became a shepherd. The two made a sacrifice of their produce to God, who favored Abel’s and not Cain’s. Filled with jealously Cain killed his brother and as a consequence, he was cursed by God to be a fugitive and a vagabond on the earth. Genesis 4:16 states, “And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the Land of Nod, on the east of Eden.”

Cain and Abel. (Jane023 / Public Domain)

Cain and Abel. (Jane023 / Public Domain )

Where is the Land of Nod?

‘Nod’ is a Hebrew word that may be translated to mean ‘to wander’ and the only piece of information provided by Genesis about this place is its relative location to the Garden of Eden, i.e. to its east. Some Biblical scholars believe that Nod is an actual place and have tried to establish its location. This endeavor, needless to say, is dependent on the location of the Garden of Eden which is itself a highly disputed topic. It is described in the Book of Genesis as the source of four tributaries and many believe it was where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers run into the sea.

There are many speculations about where the land of Nod may be, including Arabia, India, and even as far away as China. Unsurprisingly, there is no consensus as to the exact location of the Land of Nod.

Cain fleeing before Jehovah's Curse. (BetacommandBot / Public Domain)

Cain fleeing before Jehovah's Curse. ( BetacommandBot / Public Domain )

On the other side of the debate is the argument that the Land of Nod is not an actual place, but a symbolic or figurative one. Some are of the opinion that the Land of Nod refers to any area where Cain’s wandering took him. Others suggest that this Biblical Land of Nod represents a place of exile, grief, and mourning. Yet others have argued that this place symbolized the growing distance between God and humanity. As Adam and Eve were living in the Garden of Eden, they were closer to God than their son Cain, who was forced to wander further east of this paradise.

The Garden of Eden. (FRAYK / Public Domain)

The Garden of Eden. ( FRAYK / Public Domain )

Cain’s Wife and Child

The next verse of the chapter (Genesis 4:17) introduces the character of Cain’s wife, “And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he built a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch”, whose identity has attracted the attention of Biblical scholars. Adherents of the Abrahamic faiths believe that all human beings are descended from Adam and Eve. In Genesis, however, Adam and Eve are said to have had three children – Cain, Abel, and Seth.

Depiction of Cain establishing the city of Enoch. (Ldorfman / Public Domain)

Depiction of Cain establishing the city of Enoch. (Ldorfman / Public Domain )

This is a problem for those who subscribe to a literal interpretation of the story of creation in Genesis. The conventional way of solving this problem is that Adam and Eve had many other children, though their names are not mentioned, and that Cain married one of his sisters. It has been argued that marriages between siblings was allowed and was only forbidden during the time of Moses. Nevertheless, the problem with this is that their children are at a risk of being born with abnormalities, as a result of inbreeding. To address this issue, it has been argued that Adam and Eve, being created ‘perfect’, had genes that were ‘perfect’, and that their closest descendants inherited these ‘perfect’ genes. Moreover, ‘mistakes’ entered the human genetic makeup over time, which meant that inbred children risk being born with abnormalities.

Who Was Cain’s Wife?

Others have suggested that Cain met his wife in the Land of Nod, which would imply that she was not a daughter of Adam and Eve. Proponents of a literal interpretation of Genesis are quick to point out that Genesis 4:17 merely states that “Cain knew his wife”, i.e. had sexual intercourse with his wife, in the Land of Nod and not that he met her there. The same argument, however, may be used against this claim, as it is neither stated that Cain was married before his exile. In any case, it has been suggested that the question may be looked at from a different angle, i.e. from the way group identities are created. Those ‘outside’ the group are often regarded to be less important and perhaps even less human than those ‘inside’. This would explain the position of the author of Genesis, in which focus is placed on Adam, Eve, and their descendants, whereas those who do not belong to this family, even if they existed, did not matter and may be glossed over.

Top image: Sacrifices of Cain and Abel. Fresco from Chiesa di San Lorenzo in Palatio ad Sancta Sanctorum, Rome. Source: Renáta Sedmáková / Adobe.

By Wu Mingren


Biblical Archaeology Society Staff, 2018. Who Was the Wife of Cain?. [Online] Available at:
Fairchild, M., 2017. Where Did Cain Find His Wife?. [Online] Available at:
Got Questions Ministries, 2019. What is the land of Nod in the Bible? Where was it?. [Online] Available at:
Ham, K., 1993. Cain's Wife: It Really Does Matter!. [Online] Available at:
Kalisch, M. M., 2019. The Land of Nod. [Online] Available at:
Lyons, E., 2005. The Land of Nod. [Online] Available at:
The Bible: Standard King James Version , 2014. [Online] Available at:


Well, like most of the things going on in the Bible, I tend to believe it's either made up nonsense or pieces of stories from far earlier history that have been woven into another story to serve a purpose.

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