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Detail, Manichaean priests, writing at their desks. Manuscript from Gaochang (Khocho), Tarim Basin, China.

Manichaeism - One of the Most Popular Religions of the Ancient World

Manichaeism is a multi-faceted religion that was founded by Iranian prophet Mani. After a revelation with the angel Eltaum, Mani prepared for twelve years to proclaim himself to the people. Manichaeism was developed in Mani’s several writings, which depicted a battle between forces, and a creation of man and the universe which was founded on the conflict between light and dark. For several centuries, Manichaeism spread far and wide, at one point being considered a main rival to Christianity.

Mani was born in 216 A.D. in Mesopotamia to parents who were members of the religious sect of Elcesaites. Mani’s father, upon worshiping in a temple, claimed to have heard a voice that urged him to abstain from wine, women, and meat. To obey the voice, Mani’s father emigrated south, with Mani, to join the Mughtasilah, or Mandaean Baptists.

Illustration depicting Mani the Prophet.

Illustration depicting Mani the Prophet. Public Domain

At this time, Mani had his first revelation, and it is said the angel Eltaum appeared before him and told him to leave the Mandaeans, live chastely, and to proclaim himself to the people after the passage of twelve years’ time. He proclaimed himself on Sunday, 20 March, A.D. 242, saying to the people: “As once Buddha came to India, Zoroaster to Persia, and Jesus to the lands of the West, so came in the present time, this prophecy through me, the Mani, to the land of Babylonia.” Mani spoke as the “Apostle of the true God.”

As he developed Manichaeism, Mani composed seven writings, including the Shabuhragan. His teachings focused on the origins of evil, and taught a “dualistic” view between good and evil, which appeared to reflect several religions including Babylonian, Buddhist, Chaldean, Judaic, Christian, Iranian and Zoroastrian dualism.

At first Mani had little success, and was forced to travel abroad to spread Manichaeism to Turkestan and India. He presented one of his seven writings to the King of Sassanid Persia, Shapur I, who did not follow Manichaeism, but tolerated it and did not inhibit its spread.

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The spread of Manichaeism (A.D. 300– 500). Map reference: World History Atlas, Dorling Kindersly.

The spread of Manichaeism (A.D. 300– 500). Map reference: World History Atlas, Dorling Kindersly. Wikimedia ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Under the beliefs of Manichaeism, there existed a powerful good force, ‘God’, which opposed a semi-eternal evil force, ‘Satan’.  Manichaeism is a Gnostic religion that focuses on salvation by knowledge. The battle between God and Satan created humanity, the world, and the soul as a byproduct. Humans serve as the battleground, as the soul is believed to contain both the light of God and the dark of Satan. The collision between the light of God and the dark of Satan is the main conflict of Manichaeism. This all is said to begin with the creation of the universe in three phases.

The “First Creation” began with a world in which good and evil existed separately. Good was found in the World of Light. The World of Light was ruled by the Father of Greatness and five divine attributes of light called Shekhinas. Evil resided in the World of Darkness, ruled by the King of Darkness. Over time, the World of Darkness became aware of the existence of the World of Light. The World of Darkness became jealous and greedy, and attacked the World of Light. The Mother of Life sent her son, Original Man, to fight off the attacking powers of Darkness and the Demon of Greed. The five Shekhinas provided the Original Man with five shields of light, which were used to trick the Darkness. The Darkness defeated the Original Man, swallowing as much of the light from his shields as possible, and entrapped him within the World of Darkness.

The “Second Creation” began when the Father of Greatness sent a call to the Living Spirit and to the Original Man. The Original Man answered to the World of Light. The call and answer both became Manichaean deities. Together, the Living Spirit, his five sons, and the Mother of Life used the bodies of evil from the World of Darkness, and the light they have swallowed, to begin creating the universe. The mixtures of darkness and light were used to create ten heavens and eight earths. The light was used to create the sun, the moon, and the stars. As the moon became full, it filled with light which passed to the sun, through the Milky Way to the World of Light. 

The “Third Creation” began as great demons were hung over the heavens. From the male and female evil beings, light was drawn and they became sexually aroused in greed. As the light was expelled from their bodies, evil attempted to consume as much of the light back into their bodies as they could. After swallowing large quantities of light, the evil beings copulated and created Adam and Eve. Radiant Jesus was sent by the Father of Greatness to awaken Adam, and to teach him of the source of light within his body. However, Adam and Eve ultimately copulate and produce more humans, each with the light trapped within their human body.

10th century Manichaean Electae in Gaochang (Khocho), China.

10th century Manichaean Electae in Gaochang (Khocho), China. Creative Commons

Mani’s teachings were recounted through his books. Six of the original books were written in Syriac Aramaic. These original books have since been lost, but not before being widely translated to help spread the religion of Manichaeism. Translations included Middle Persian, Parthian, Sogdian, Tocharian, Uyghur, Chinese, Greek, Coptic, and Latin.

Manichaeism spread very quickly through the Syriac Aramaic region, ultimately becoming one of the most widespread religions in the world. It’s most prosperous time was between the third and seventh centuries, before it faded away in the fourteenth century. It was considered the main rival to Christianity at one point.

To many, Manichaeism was the only true combination of all religions known at the time, combining Babylonian, Buddhist, Chaldean, Judaic, Christian, Iranian, and Zoroastrian dualism. With such a combination of religions, it is easy to see how Manichaeism would have appealed to a great many people. The classic focus on light versus dark is a theme that prevails in many major religions.

Statue of prophet Mani as the 'Buddha of Light' in Caoan Temple in Jinjiang, Fujian, considered 'the only extant Manichean temple in China'.

Statue of prophet Mani as the "Buddha of Light" in Cao'an Temple in Jinjiang, Fujian, considered "the only extant Manichean temple in China". Creative Commons

Featured image: Detail, Manichaean priests, writing at their desks. Manuscript from Gaochang (Khocho), Tarim Basin, China. Public Domain

Sources

Manichaeism – New Advent. Available from: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09591a.htm

The Prophet Mani and his Universalist Faith – Macrohistory and World Timeline. Available from: http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch22.htm

Manichaeism and true Christianity – Truth for Today. Available from: http://www.tecmalta.org/tft323.htm

By M R Reese

Comments

Dualism comes from a misunderstanding of the nature of Nature, it probably comes from the Quantum Duality of wave/particle states of things(how the ancient people would know Quantum is an open question).

For some reason the human mind finds Dualism appealing which explains the enormous success of 'dualistic' religions, virtually all religions are dualistic regardless if they are monotheistic or polytheistic.

Dualism is objectively false as you can never attribute good or evil to Nature just to Sentient behavior, so in essence it is Humans who are dualistic by nature and not the Universe, hmmm which would probably explain the popularity of it, as humans create religions and belief systems that closely describe them selves .. not gods or the Universe at large.

'We' are simply projecting out us selves into the Universe.

Light can be understood as the Wave form of things, ie. a photon which IS light and energy

Dark can be understood as the Particle form of things, ie. that which does not shine but absorbs Light/Energy, that which we commonly see as matter.

But how the ancients would understand this is beyond me.

That's a "one size fits all" notion of Duelism. It doesn't apply when working from a credible theological or philosophical base. Although it does work from your preconceptions, so that's okay for you. "Objectively false" is therefore another tall order. Your groupings of Duelism are too generalised to make your overall notion credible. Enjoy the pseudo physics, though. Nothing else is actually going on.

Dualism is not about "good vs. evil". It is about polarities. Yin/Yang is a duality and demonstrates a natural polarity. Magnets have a N and S pole, which is also a natural duality. Is the N pole of a magnet "good" and the S pole "evil"? No. Also, there is Mind/Body duality, Male/Female duality, Spiritual/Physical duality. Your understanding of Duality is lacking.

All religions have theories on the reason there is good and evil, but the catch 22 is that they also have the "virtues" that are supposed to be adhered to in order to combat "evil", to rise above evil....so they set a standard of do's and do not's. This is the dragon encountered in the Three Metamorphosis in Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra. The battle of the lion and the lizard...the "personal WILL" OF THE LION and the THOU SHALT" OF THE LIZARD. Verse 17 in the Rubiayat..."They say the Lion and the Lizard keep the courts where Jamshyd gloried and drank deep". In this battle, as Nietzsche reveals, new tablets of virtue are written by the Lion, the individual decides for themselves what is right and what they want and do not want in their reality. The opinions of others do not matter anymore.....in this battle the lion has to learn to live alone, because that fierce independence is hated by humans. They are no longer a member of the herd. Sort of like the story of the lion that was raised by the sheep and thought it was a sheep until another lion lead it to a pool of water where it saw its reflection.
There is a battle between good and evil....Light and Shadow. The battle between the lion and lizard is intense. It is not so much in the physical as it is in the psyche...Ephesians 6:12..."For we fight not against flesh and blood". It is not won by adhering to a list of virtues that dictate what is good and evil as most religions suggest, instead victory lays in freeing the mind from this bondage, an inner cleansing that is reflected in the external actions....not just external actions that are dictated by a list of virtues. It comes from the inside out, not the outside in. So, this prophet thought chastity was necessary, but that is an external action....what if he held repressed lust? Was he a better person because he did not act on those urges...as Nietzsche expressed he would throw not only his demons, but also himself to the swine (that ran over the cliff and perished). The battle between the lion and lizard is internal and it is "Beyond Good and Evil", it can not be dictated by human concepts of "virtue".

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