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What did the Egyptians think of Cleopatra?

In his book “Egyptology: The Missing Millenium”, Okasha el Daly claims that hieroglyphics were decoded several 100 years before Champollion by scholars during the height of the Islamic empire.  There was a great interest in retrieving "lost knowledge” and they translated every piece of papyrus they could get their hands on.

El Daly maintains that the Arabs referred to Cleopatra VII as the “Virtuous Scholar”.  I can't read Arabic, but in the French and German translations, I’ve never seen anything ressembling this term.  However, in following up his references, the Arab scholars clearly respected Cleopatra’s accomplishments as defined in the ancient records they translated.  There’s a couple of references to Cleopatra the scholar, and a few more as Cleopatra the builder.

I've collected what translations I have on this webpage,  Plutarch names her a polyglot, Al Mas’udi a polymath.  There are some historic mistakes about canals and the Pharos, but the impression is clear.

Some people make a big deal out of Cleopatra speaking multiple languages (Plutarch lists 8, omits Greek which she’d learned in her crib, and she’d be a fool if she didn’t speak the language of the superpower .. Latin, but Plutarch finished with “many more”).  Mithridates of Pergamon was said to have spoken 20:  he *HAD* to … he ruled over 20 distinct territories.  Perhaps in an era with many small kingdoms the size of Luxembourg, a responsible leader was expected to be a multi-lingual.  Yeah, the later PTOLEMIES weren’t like that … I did say “responsible”.


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The grade is not the point of the essay. I only got one A in the whole of my University course, and the experience flew over my head.

I learned much more from the ones that got a lower grade because of the hard research work I did to write the essay from scratch myself. 

Just listening to Boris Johnson quoting the Iliad from memory reminds me of the days I copied out whole pages of Virgil’s Aeneid while listening to the teacher interpret tiny sections and I sometimes wish I could read and understand more of it, 


If Cleopatra was a polymath, she would naturally be multilingual as well. If she spoke Greek,from her descent from Alexander’s general, she would be speaking the language most educated people spoke then. She might not need Latin until she came to Rome with Cesarion.  She would also speak ceremonial Egyptian, and maybe Hebrew.  Perhaps Nabatean, but Greek would be the language of educated discourse. Caesar would speak it, and Anthony.


Something I doubt she had any

Something I doubt she had any erudition based on historical summaries


Which historical summaries do you mean?  Were they contemporaneous? Victorian and C20th academics regularly got their jollies by denigrating women.  

Many royals whiled away the hours by getting educated and they could gain access to brilliant teachers. Roger Ascham became Elizabeth I Latin secretary, and she spoke Latin fluently. 

Cleopatra was clearly clever and clever people don’t usually like to be idle.  They have to entertain themselves in the prison of their circumstances. Her brother was co-ruler with her and this was an equal partnership. Siince he was in the grip of priests and was 7 years younger than she was, she was more equal than he was.

I was never that much interested in Egypt and was mostly aware of the Amarna period and Hapshepsut who was almost obiterated by subsequent parties, I don’t have much detail, but it IS common knowledge that Cleopatra was very clever, brilliant even, and captured the interest of Julius Caesar who was probably the greatest genius Rome ever produced.

Yes, there are certainly

Yes, there are certainly doubts about erudition.


Well, she would certainly know quite a lot about Egypt.  She would have been trained by priests about the history of her people, especially about her predecessors.  She would need to have information brought to her by spies and traders, often the same thing about the nations that she would encounter.  If they were preparing for war, what goods were hard to get in their countries, what they would pay a lot for, how much crime was usual in their country, how much they respected women if at all.  

For example, she knew the Romans had the Paterfamilias arrangement in their families, with the husband having the power of life and death over his household, wives, children and slaves. She needed to surprise Caesar hence having a carpet rolled out with her inside it.  I can’t rememberoffhand if this was Shakespeare’s idea (he copied most of them from other people) or something that actually happened.  It would have surprised him and given her a momentary advantage since he was arriving as a conqueror. 

I had to write a lot of

I had to write a lot of essays on Egypt. It was extremely difficult and of course I had to find ways and methods to write it. I found the data online, but I was afraid that someone had already taken it or that I could be punished for plagiarism, so I had to think about how I could check my work for plagiarism beforehand, so that it would not be a surprise to me later. I recommend here to read about recognizing and eliminating plagiarism from essays. I think it will be helpful. Good luck!