The characteristic monumental stone blocks trimmed in the shape of the letters H at Puma Punku

Enduring Mystery Surrounds the Ancient Site of Puma Punku


By Paul Darin Epoch Times

Puma Punku in Bolivia is one of the world’s most mysterious ancient sites. This remains true for both academic archaeologists and historians as well as rogue historians who investigate the hypothesis of advanced prehistoric civilizations or ancient assistance from extraterrestrials. 

Puma Punku covers a large part of the massive ancient city of Tiwanaku and it is located just southeast of Lake Titicaca in the Andes. The city predates Inca presence in that part of South America. 

Lake Titicaca, Bolivia

Lake Titicaca, Bolivia ( public domain )

The mystery lies in the precision and complexity of the structures that pervade the ruin. The finely cut doorways and remaining stone blocks bear no chisel marks and many interlock with very fine precision. 

According to Jason Yaeger, professor of anthropology at the University of Wisconsin, the city was already abandoned when the Incas conquered the area in 1470. The Incas spared no expense, however, incorporating Puma Punku and the rest of Tiwanaku city into their empire and culture.

The stonework at Puma Punku displays extraordinary precision

The stonework at Puma Punku displays extraordinary precision ( public domain )

The Incas believed the city was the place where Viracocha, their deity of creation, created the ancestral people of all ethnicities and sent them out into the world to populate their respective lands. 

“They [the Incas] reconfigured the existing structures to accommodate the ritual activities required in their own cosmology,” said Yaeger, according to an article  for the School for Advanced Research. “Transforming these spaces into ‘memory theaters,’ the Inca celebrated and materialized Tiwanaku as the place where Viracocha created the first couples of all ethnic groups and thus established the ethnic differences that formed one of the bases of Inca governance.”

A carving of Viracocha on the Sun Gate at Tiwanaku

A carving of Viracocha on the Sun Gate at Tiwanaku ( Hipolito Luiz Carignano / Flickr )

Yeager said the Incas held the fallen stone portraits near Puma Punku to be models of the first humans from their creation myth. These stone figures, however, are actually thought to depict the city’s former rulers.

The exact origin and age of the site is disputed. 

According to radiocarbon dating results released by anthropology professor William H. Isbell of the University of Illinois, the site was constructed between approximately 500 and 600 A.D. Others, however, say the radiocarbon dating is inaccurate and the structure may have been built many thousands of years before that.

Built with Needle-Fine Precision 17,000 Years Ago?

Early explorer and engineer Arthur Posnansky, one of the first modern explorers of the site, dated Puma Punku to about 15,000 B.C.; modern archaeologist Neil Steede stands behind Posnansky’s claim. 

Posnansky used the astronomical alignments of the site’s main temple to date it. “They built the temple itself as a giant clock,” Steede said in an interview with Forbidden History.

Arthur Posnansky.

Arthur Posnansky. (Wikimedia Commons)

On the first day of spring, the sun rises directly above the center of the temple, through a stone archway. The sunrise moves along the horizon as the days of the year pass. Posnansky expected to find the sun rise above cornerstones on either side of the temple on the summer and winter solstices, but found it rose some distance off. 

Looking at where the sunrise would have been 17,000 years ago on the solstices, however, the cornerstones align. 

Bolivian archaeologist Dr. Oswald Rivera agrees that the temple was built with astronomical alignments. The buildings are deliberately oriented to the cardinal points, he told Forbidden History. But, he said, the builders made a mistake; that’s why the sun doesn’t rise over the cornerstones on the solstices. 

Steede disagrees that the meticulous builders would have made such an error. The stones fit together with such precision he couldn’t even wedge a needle between them at any point. “After observing the perfection with which this site is built … to suggest that such things as the solstice markers are misaligned, I find incredible,” Steede said. Posnansky’s measurements have been confirmed by modern engineers, though his conclusions remain contentious. 

Stone block at Puma Punku with a set of blind holes of complex shape

Stone block at Puma Punku with a set of blind holes of complex shape ( public domain )

Other features of the site include a complex irrigation system and smoothly drilled holes and channels in certain stone blocks that seem to defy the stonework of the Incas or known pre-Inca peoples in the region.

Yaeger wrote: “Landscapes and monumental buildings form enduring structures that shape human experience, perception, and interaction in ways that are not entirely arbitrary. Prominent places are magnets for meanings, becoming symbols that accumulate meanings over time.”

Featured image: The characteristic monumental stone blocks trimmed in the shape of the letters H at Puma Punku ( public domain ).

The article ‘ Enduring Mystery Surrounds the Ancient Site of Puma Punku’ was originally published on The Epoch Times and has been republished with permission.


Studying this amazing stonework could get us an inkling as to the tools that made it.
Puma Punku, Tiahuanaco, Ollantaytambo, Samaipata.
When the world at large will get to grips with the fact that other civilizations roamed the Earth well before our own, it will be breaking news. As in, breaking the limits in which the "scientific community" resides, where theories are being piled up on theories. And breaking careers of limited "scientists", too. Being a scientist involves keeping asking Why?, which seldom if ever is seen nowadays.

It may take a fundamental shift in human thinking before the ancient civilizations responsible for such artifacts are regarded as truly advanced.  By modern reasoning, unless a technology (and its product) is highly synthetic it must be regarded as primitive--which is ironic considering most would agree this path, unabated, would eventually lead to the destruction of our species.

Of course another irony, oft mentioned, is that there are numerous examples of ancient artifacts which we are not capable of replicating in our day.  Most archeologists, arrogantly, are not even embarrassed in their refusal to address this.

There is NO way, that peoples thousands of years ago could make such precise cuts, deep cuts in the stone with just a stone tool. There is NO way they could have lifted 1000 Ton blocks (2,000,000 pound) blocks into place. Our ancestors had tools and knowledge that are lost to time. Modern stone carvers have a hard time replicating cuts that were done in ancient times. So, how did they make undercuts, back cuts and square holes that are still razor sharp today. What "mainstream archaeologists" won't tell you, is that 99% of their finds are University funded. What I mean is that most independent archaeology is considered fringe and not accepted if its not funded in Academically funded. Academics slant things to their "funders" ideals. Gotta make them happy. Puma Punku was around before the "great flood" and hence the reason for most the blocks looking thrown about. Many buried, half-buried and such. The complex is probably 2x-5x larger than previously thought. Same for Egypt and the area near the Pyramids. They have yet to uncover more than 15% of the ruins.

An amazing achievement but it annoys me so many people leap to aliens with this site instead of looking at the ingenuity of our ancient ancestors.

A good bunch of perceptive comments. I believe the extreme age of the ruins is incontestable; it is at least twelve-thousand years old. As one commentator noted, the disarray of the ruins, when first discovered by Spaniards, indicates cataclysmic action. What some people overlook (and most archeologists) is the elevation of the site. The content of Lake Titicaca, the agricultural terraces up to and above the snow line, and several other factors strongly suggest extreme uplift of the whole area. Puma Punku was a seaport before the Cataclysm. Even Darwin noted elevated waterlines above the coast. Megalithic ruins throughout the Americas demonstrate an advanced civilization; sites under the ocean prove cataclysmic changes in geography.


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