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Beaver Wars

George Catlin’s 1860s painting of men of the Kickapoo Nation preaching and praying.

Kickapoo Nation Was Scattered and Driven South from Michigan to Mexico

Not long after Europeans came to North America, Native American tribes from the East began moving west toward the Great Lakes. Around the mid-17th century, a number of the more westerly tribes or...
A lithograph of Ho-Chunk chief Hairy Bear for a cigarette ad, 1888. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art

How the Ho-Chunk Nation Beat the Odds and Made a Comeback

After contact with Europeans in the 17 th century, the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin was reduced from thousands of people to hundreds by disease, starvation and war, including inter-tribal warfare...