Ancient Underground Network of tunnels From Scotland to Turkey

Extensive Ancient Underground Networks Discovered Throughout Europe

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Archaeologists uncovered thousands of Stone Age underground tunnels, stretching across Europe from Scotland to Turkey, perplexing researchers as to their original purpose.

German archaeologist Dr Heinrich Kusch, in his book ‘ Secrets of the Underground Door to an Ancient World ’ (Original title in German: "Tore zur Unterwelt: Das Geheimnis der unterirdischen Gänge aus uralter Zeit ...") revealed that tunnels were dug under literally hundreds of Neolithic settlements all over Europe and the fact that so many tunnels have survived 12,000 years indicates that the original networks must have been huge.

'In Bavaria in Germany alone we have found 700 metres of these underground tunnel networks. In Styria in Austria we have found 350 metres,' he said. 'Across Europe there were thousands of them - from the north in Scotland down to the Mediterranean.

The tunnels are quite small, measuring only 70cm in width, which is just enough for a person to crawl through. In some places there are small rooms, storage chambers and seating areas.

While many believe Stone Age humans were primitive, incredible discoveries such as the 12,000 year-old temple called Gobekli Tepe in Turkey and Stonehenge in England - which demonstrate advanced astronomical knowledge - indicate that they were not as primitive as many believe.

The discovery of a vast network of tunnels suggests that Stone Age humans were not just spending their days hunting and gathering.  However, the real purpose of the tunnels is still a matter of speculation. Some experts believe they were a way of protecting man from predators while others believe they were a way for people to travel safely, sheltered from harsh weather conditions or even wars and violence. However, at this stage scientists are only able to guess, as the tunnels have not yet revealed all their secrets of the past.

You may also like to read Part 1 of my research on Underground Cities and Networks worldwide, as well as Part 2 on incredible discoveries all around the World.

You can read Part 2 here: Discoveries of vast underground networks spanning countries and maybe even continents. - See more at:
You can read Part 2 here: Discoveries of vast underground networks spanning countries and maybe even continents. - See more at:

By April Holloway


I'm going to guess they used those tunnels to survive when certain things happened in the environment.

There is plenty of similar tunnel and archaeological stuff like that in Sardinia, Italy. The problem is, in Italy the government has never ever spent money for scientific and archaeological research. So we hope one day someone from abroad will study the very great archaeological because italians have never ever shown any interest for that. But there are tunnels like that, very much, all around the island, and many other founds that seem to be connected to the civilazion who built that, like domus the janas, menhirs, dolmen, cromlech, "pozzi sacri" and only place in the world, the "nuraghi". The sardinian folklore is very rich, but speaks widely about the culture and the civilizations connected to all these founds. And, because italians do not want to spend money for scientific research in Sardinia, we hope somone from abroad can afford it. Sorry for my english.

It is my contention that all European and American tunnel systems are simply survival technology during the Third Meltwater Pulse (between 11,200 and 7,000 years ago. During that period, ice melt from the Laurentide sheet and other northern glaciers melted so rapidly oceans rose 195' (that means worldwide) in just over 4,000 years. To accomplish that astounding feat requires a known amount of thermodynamic energy. The exact calculation can be obtained by any competent math student. It requires a given heat index to melt a gallon of water from a block of ice. Multiply that by the number of gallons of water in worldwide oceans at 195' depth, and you have the total energy required to produce the Third Meltwater Pulse. The actual number is staggering.

In addition, the above mentioned pulse started 'instantly' about 11,200 years ago, and ended as instantly 7,000 years ago. The only Occam's Razor postulate that accounts for such a huge energy transfer is an remarkably high heat index increase in the earth's ambient temperature. And the only probably explanation for that is that the Earth moved closer to the sun in some cataclysmic event (called the "Pool Ball Effect" of an encounter or near impact with a passing large body. The only other alternative is that the Sun moved closer to the Earth, though much less practical.

If the ambient surface temperature increased to the level that would account for the tremendous ice sheet melt of that period, that surface temperature would be globally like living in Death Valley full time, or something on the order of 115 to 120 degree surface temperature or slightly more. Such a temperature would render the surface nearly uninhabitable, except for short periods of time, driving populations to build underground cities and tunnel travel systems.

It is my opinion as to the explanations for the subterranean tunnels and habitation systems found all over the world.

Tsurugi's picture


I agree with the possibility that the tunnels were for protection from heat during the end of the LGM. I just wanted to suggest a third possibility for the cause of the heat: a prolonged increase in solar output.

Our sun is not a flare star, but it is technically 2% variable, and along with the 11-year cycle, there are many other cycles that are much longer, most of which scientists are still stuggling to understand.
I think it is a reasonable speculation to suggest that there could be times when both long and short-term cycles align such that the solar output increases, stabilizes that way for a time, then drops back down. The increase and decrease would happen very suddenly, matching what we see with the meltwater pulses.

This mechanism could also explain the periods of glaciation and ensuing ice ages. If there are cycle alignments that result in increased luminosity, there will be opposing alignments resulting in decreased luminosity.

I wouldn't disagree with you (particularly as you are arguing the Plasma Universe theory of the Electric Sky folks, Hal Thornhill, In general, I don't disagree with the theory, although it does not square with all the facts of the mid Holocene cataclysms. The Younger Dryas event at 12,800 YBP and the Hudson Bay event at 11,200 YBP, as well as the Last Great Cataclysm at 7,000 YBP have left hard evidence they were major impact events. I won't cover them here, but Firestone and West do a credible job of defining their research on the so called 'Carolina Bays' from the Hudson Bay impact event. The Younger Dryas event has long been considered an extraordinary impact event, though no one has identified the crater. Well, I have fixed that issue.

In my current book that I am in final edit on, I will make the case that a projectile about 25-30 miles across hit the Earth in the Pacific Northwest near Mt. Sacajawea in NE Oregon, penetrated the Earth and exited in the Taklimakan Desert in Western China.

The event accounts for every anomaly of the Y-D impact. One of the results was a major change in the charge density of our Electrostatic Field envelope (referred to as 'Gravity' by the non technical, Quantum Physics folks) which caused large heavy flora and fauna to go extinct almost instantaneously. There is no other explanation for 120 ton animals being able to walk upright or 500 lb flyers to cruise the skies except less (by magnitudes of scale) dense 'gravity'. The best Scientists in the Electrogravatics crowd, particularly Tesla, Asp, Brown and LaVoliette all make the case that 'G' as a force is in reality an Electrostatic Field. I tend to agree with them, which puts me at some slight odds with the Electric Sky Plasma model.

I don't disagree that the hockey stick graph of the last several ice ages reflect something very regular in terms of heat index is occurring over very long time frames. That does not mean however, that cataclysmic impact and other driver events do not occur quite regular on our planet, because they do. When a dipole exchange takes place on our planet, for example, whether it corresponds to a similar exchange on the Sun or not, I am sure the planet reacts in some very catastrophic (to flora and fauna) processes.

I will make most of the case in my book that our historical records, tribal legends, myths, and religions reflect a time in our not so distant past when two major planets were much closer to us than they are today. Shades of The Saturn Theory. So some series of catastrophic events clouded the early Holocene, destroying whole species, and I will make the case that dinosaurs including T-Rex and other large carnivores were part of that extinction level event. As well as human giants.

All that being said, I still like the theory that the Sun probably is a whole lot less stable that we tend to expect it to be. And it probably wrecks havoc on our earth on a fairly regular basis.

It is my entirely unscientific postulation that the large animals, a.k.a. dinosaurs, were amphibious, and we have no reason to believe otherwise. I agree it is quite silly to believe that a brontosaur could carry its' weight upright and on land given, considering the Law of Gravity. Another notion is that the density of the Earth has changed, significantly, over time. Perhaps, millions of years ago, the Earth was 4x, 6x, or even 10x its' current size? If this were so, then the gravitational pull of the Earth's core would be significantly less than it is today. Compare to Jupiter.

I have heard it postulated that, at one time in Earth's history, the atmosphere contained a "water blanket", consisting of an immense amount of water which shielded the earth from large amounts of radiation. This blanket would also have had the effect of distributing the Sun's heating effect evenly between the poles, resulting in a very mild climate over all the Earth. If this theory were true, it may have been possible that this "water blanket" was destroyed by some collision or near miss and could account for such a large change in the depth of the sea.

underground tunnels provide protection from wild animals, other humans--and if deep enough, acts
as insulation in winter-----visit a coal mine during winter weather and you will appreciate the warmth-----

Susan, those are reasonable points. I appreciate your input.

I wonder though about the cost benefit as the absolute cost in terms of resources and requirements are no different then than they are today. It seems to me that carving living quarters out of hard rock is one of the most cost prohibitive construction methods available. And I think tunnels are VERY dangerous as a retreat from marauders and outlaws. All the attackers have to do is find the air vents and it's pretty much all over with.

I don't disagree with the predator animal idea, but the response to that threat seems to be the many thousands of dolmens scattered all over the world. They seem to me to be temporary 'safe rooms' particularly from large flyers and land based carnivores. I think there is a specific reason that almost all dolmens have very large and very heavy single slab stone roofs. Which , in my opinion is to keep something very large and very strong from entering the confined space. As you may know, there are two distinct styles of dolmen. On is a very heavy roof slab perched up on open stone pillars. They look to me way to much like a defense against very large flyers for it to have much other purpose.

The other style is a small room built with very large stone blocks, again with a very large flat stone roof. This type though has an entry hole close to the ground that is just large enough to allow women and children to crawl through. (On average, the entry holes are round and about 2 feet across.)

In my upcoming book, I will make the case that both giant humans and some mid sized dinosaurs co-existed with Cro Magnon and several other Hominid species up into the mid to late Holocene, including modern times. 14' to 16' giant hominids were able to defend against T-Rex and other mid sized to large carnivores. But modern human and smaller hominids were especially vulnerable. I have several copies of old tintype photos (if I had to guess I would say about 1850) of what appear to be Petrodactyl type flyers. Another later one is of a Triceratops. I can't prove they are authentic, but it was a long time ago, and a very difficult situation to 'fake'. All three are military photos, showing a group of military personnel (like a squad or column of men) with the animals.

Further, as the Earth was experiencing a rapid ice meltwater pulse at the time, (some experts think the ambient temperature was 27 degrees hotter than current) it seems to me that remediation of the heat index is a far better reason to go underground than security and safety from an external threat.

Anyway, thanks for your comment.

Underground caverns inhabited by reptilian aliens have been discovered under Dulce Base in NM! Check it out:

Underground network implies that they're all physically connected, they're not. A much simpler explanation is that it was an obvious solution to common problems like security, shelter, privacy for rituals, food storage, etc.

The Pyramids of Egypt are not, in spite of the assertion in the above text, from the stone age.
They were created during the bronze age and were only made possible by bronze stone saws, chisels and adzes, many of which can be seen in inscriptions and wall art or are described in mundane inventory records.

The egyptians also had iron but their only source was meteoritic (fallen to earth in meteorites, same source for the rare impact glass used in some ornaments and jewelry) and so iron was relegated usually to jewelry, religious artifacts and implements symbolizing pharaonic power. Unalloyed iron is also brittle and not terribly well suited to long or hard wearing tools.
It's origins from space imbued the material with special significance for the Egyptians as their culture was focused heavily on astronomy primarily stemming from their calendrical need to know when the Nile would floodbut branched out into their mythology and burial rites.

Neutron and gamma ray analysis of the iron indicated that the metal originated in meteorites due to the high concentration of nickel, cobalt, phosphorous and germanium that are characteristic of meteorites.

It seems to me that although your comments are valid and highly BOOK SMART, they have absolutely nothing to do with the article. I read the article about the tunnels and must say that . . . . . if you don't have anything to say about the article don't comment. I would love to see more on this topic. I hope that they figure out why these tunnels were constructed, if there can not be found an explanation then humans will continue to amaze all. Let the scientists working on this do their job.

To start, the title of this article is misleading, implying that all these tunnels are interconnected. If the title is misleading, intentionally I think, how accurate is the remainder of the article.

Who made you the comment Queen? If someone has something "book smart" to add to an article then no harm and no foul. It appears to me you are intimidated by those book smart types...which would then render a reader of your comment to come to a conclusion that you are not, and are simply another internet troll who wants to be important but sadly has no sense of self worth. A comment also doesn't hinder a "scientist" to not work and "do their jobs". I'm sad for you, honestly.

In fact Andrew's comment has quite a neutral tone, for a scientific comment. You should see how a critical comment looks like!
As others have mentioned, they are a variety of things which are unreasonable in the article, the most disappointing of which is the misleading title. In scientific pursuit we try to express things in a manner which is as precise and accurate as possible, and comment on a rigorous manner, as not to waste each other's time. We rarely give each other pats on the back (though probably from the humanistic, motivational perspective this might seem sad or unfriendly). Nor are the scientists doing the work which is being commented upon meant to feel destroyed or stop working. Is just a simple process through which we confront each other's errors, rectify them, and make better research. Andrew's comment is very valuable, though it might not sound like the normal comments people make to popular science articles (e.g. "wow, that's awesome, dude!").

Why trust them ?? Or people in power I should say , we are told to be leave that people that wrote the bible or about the past got it right when they cant now ! We have miners getting killed all the time and nowhere near what was done when according to some we couldn't write

re SANDRA2224

Hi Sandra there is a really good book that was written by Louis Lamour called The Walking Drum, the main character travels throughout midevil Europe and part of the book is about the tunnels. This is a novel however Louis Lamour was very renowned for his expert research and subject knowledge. I would tend to believe his account as much as current archeology in this publish or perish atmosphere. There are also many other well researched historical facts from the midevil times in the book, all in a very good read. Most used books stores will have a copy.

Interesting I guess you solved the mystery and beat all the scientist to the explanation huh? Instead of acting like you know it all you should just sit out.

The pyramids at Giza is much much older than from the bronze age.

Andrew, how much did the smithsonian pay you to post....Yeah, pyramids with bronze hammers, sacsayhuaman was built with bronze chisels too.../sarc..Or are you employed at a major american university so this is part of your "duty" to keep your tenure???

Stone Age subway system for Fred and Barney. Makes sense, especially during cold snaps. I had dreams about something like this in Erie during the winters as a kid.

Same phenomenon found in American Southwest. Pueblos, cliff dwellings plus documented evidence of cannibalism reveal that humans hunted and ate other humans not of their "group." Tunnels provided same chance of escape from invading hunters who practiced cannibalism. .

many things are incorrectly explained.. we will in time learn the truth :))))

Interested in a variety of subjects that spark my interest. This ancient past is how I discovered this site.

The tunnels were to escape the giants...

I looked for references from the peer reviewed archaeology but couldn't find any. The 12,000 year age reminds me of Graham Hancock and his wacky ideas. I trust they are not related?

Have you read any of Graham's books? Of all the alternative historians he is the most sensible and well researched. There are plenty of links to peer reviewed scientific papers in his books and the latest Magicians of the Gods is mostly that! No aliens or giants just clever humans who lost their memory trying to cope with 1500 years of appalling climate during the Younger Dryas. If I was going to survive highly unpredictable weather and significant fall out I would go underground.

Have you read any of Graham's books? Of all the alternative historians he is the most sensible and well researched. There are plenty of links to peer reviewed scientific papers in his books and the latest Magicians of the Gods is mostly that! No aliens or giants just clever humans who lost their memory trying to cope with 1500 years of appalling climate during the Younger Dryas. If I was going to survive highly unpredictable weather and significant fall out I would go underground.

Someone call Ancient Aliens. They were used for safe passage while the "Engineers/God/Gods/Aliens" were battling it out with others on the surface.

Yep... This is the best explanation yet.

Could be a way of hiding for enemy tribes and/or large wild animals

yok ebenin amı

Beyler, elimde tünele ait bir harita var. Ücrette anlaşabilirsek haritayı size satabilirim. Erzağınızı alın yaklaşık 1 haftada İskoçya'dasınız. İsteyen beni ekşi sözlükten bulsun.

Böyle önemli bir konuda bir iki satır yazmak isterdim ama bilgim dışında kınular, araştırıp dönücem

First time to visit your WebSite. Like what I see. Hope to see more on Ancient Maps & Archaeology. Have you seen the work of Dr. Sarah Parcak of the Univ.of Alabama in the USA. She is using Satalite Imaging to find Sites under the sands of Egypt. Her work is worth looking into. -wayne

aprilholloway's picture

Hi Wayne, thanks for your feedback. We have a few articles relating to ancient maps, but you're right, we could do with some more. I'm not familiar with the work of Dr Sarah Parcak but will look her up. Thanks,

April Holloway,

Ancient Origins

I found this Article to be evocative as well as informative, and you have my thanks, April Holloway. Fascinating, thinking that some of our very earliest Ancestors Survival instinct was so strong that they were able to figure out a way to achieve feats of Labor that were nothing short of astonishing. It would be equally awesome if those commenting could merely present their opinions as just that, their opinions - and not antagonize or criticize the opinions expressed by others. This is actually counterproductive, and detracts from The Article itself, and is disrespectful to The Author, The Researchers and all of those Readers who have an interest in the subject matter, and enjoy working out their remarkable brains, and articulating ideas. To you others who feel a need for derogatory or negative expression...isn't that what Facebook is for?
Thanks again, April Holloway!!!
-Johnny Nono-

aprilholloway's picture

Hi Johnny, thanks very much for your kind comments and support. I am glad you found it interesting!

Roberto Peron's picture

I absolutely agree with you Johnny Nono.  At this point we can only speculate and theorize about what purpose these tunnels served, who built them, how were they built, and why.  So everyone's opinion is worthy of consideration and important.  I see a lot of personal attacks on this site over someone expressing their opinion and even some name calling.  Aren't we above all that?  Such behavior is childish.  And this especially applies to the academics on this site.  We are SUPPOSE to be professional and ethical are we not?  Such behavior does ot reflect that professionalism or ethics.  

I find several fascinating theories here in the comments that I can agree with or could agree with.  I appreciate those people taking the time to post their theories here with professionalism.  So now let's have a rational discussion about some of what has been presented here instead of degrading ourselves into name calling, personal attack, and the rot.

Nice article April and thank you for bringing the tunnel info to light here.




I would also be interested to learn of your Findings regarding these Tunnels - in the future.
Thank You!!!

I've beens skimming through Paracelsus' book on gnomes, undines etc. at Google books:

and found the following interesting sentence:

"That is why it often happens that one finds in the earth an attic, vaults and similar structures of the height of about a yard. They have been built by these people for their abode and dwellings."

Whu do people go underground?

If not to dig for diamonds, then it must be to hide.

For human enemies, or maybe to keep warm. A few meters  underground is a lot warmer than above.

Above it is mentioned that it was too hot to live above ground. I think in that case these people would have perished ,  because animals would have died from the heat and/or starvation. 

The land would have been desertlike.

Living underground in dangerous times is not such a bad idea.


Sunny Young

Roberto Peron's picture

Excellent point Sunny.  If these tunnels were used by people to stay off the surface because it was too hot to live on then what did they survive on?  The animals would have been dead along with the vegetation killed off by the excessive heat.  People have to eat something and without plants and animals there is not much to eat other than dirt.

Addtionally, I'm wondering if these are the same extensive tunnel systems we've known about for a long while now in Europe.  It was postulated that they were mining tunnels by some but were they?  Are these the same or are these a different system of tunnels?


u totally mistranslated the german, the correct translation is: "Tore zur Unterwelt: Das Geheimnis der unterirdischen Gänge aus uralter Zeit ..." Gate to the Underground/Underworld: The secret of the underground/underworld gates from ancient times.... aus means from not to, be precise if you want to be taken serious!

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