Entrance to DB320 tomb

DB320 - Uncovering the Impressive Cache of Hidden Pharaohs

(Read the article on one page)

The tomb discovered in the summer of 1881 changed Egyptology forever. It was an assemblage containing the mummified remains and funerary equipment of more than 50 kings, queens, and many other royals and nobles.

Many tombs in The Valley of the Kings, The Valley of the Queens, and others were looted in ancient times (the problem still exists today in many parts of the world). When the first Egyptologists entered the tombs, it was not unheard of for them to encounter damaged walls, broken artifacts, and empty sarcophagi. Mummies of famous pharaohs like Ramesses II, Seti I, and Tuthmosis II - all were thought to be lost to thieves. The unearthing of tomb DB320 would change that belief.

How a Goat Discovered a Treasure

The tomb DB320 is located in the Theban cliffs of Deir el-Bahri. According to the most possible version of the story about the discovery of this tomb, the mummy first came to light when a straying goat stumbled and disappeared down a concealed tomb shaft. The Egyptian man, who was the owner of the goat, was Ahmed Abd el-Rassul. He was, like all of his family, a well-known tomb-robber.

The Abd el-Rassul family lived comfortably through looting tombs into the 1870s - when the growing number of important papyri reaching the local antiquities market gave the game away. Thus, when they discovered the tomb, they realized that the chances of successfully exploiting it were slim, so they decided to inform the Ministry of Antiquities and hoped to receive some kind of reward.

Aerial view of the Ramesseum and Sheikh Abd el-Qurna where the Abd el-Rassul family lived and traded looted artifacts.

Aerial view of the Ramesseum and Sheikh Abd el-Qurna where the Abd el-Rassul family lived and traded looted artifacts. ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )

In 1881, a French Egyptologist named Gaston Maspero, who was the head of the Antiquities Service at the time, went back to Paris and left his assistant Emile Brugsch, temporarily in charge. He was the first person (apart from the Abd el-Rassul family) to enter the tomb called “cachette.”

Location and Outline of Tomb DB320

He said later in an interview:

“Soon we came upon cases of porcelain funerary offerings, metal and alabaster vessels, draperies and trinkets, until, reaching the turn in the passage, a cluster of mummy cases came into view in such numbers as to stagger me. Collecting my senses, I made the best examination of them I could by the light of my torch and at once saw that they contained the mummies of royal personages of both sexes; and yet that was not all. Plunging on ahead of my guide, I came to the [end] chamber..., and there standing against the walls or here lying of the floor, I found even a greater number of mummy-cases of stupendous size and weight.”

Location and outline the tomb DB320 in Deir el Bahari, the hiding place of many royal mummies.

Location and outline the tomb DB320 in Deir el Bahari, the hiding place of many royal mummies. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

A Great Cache of Mummies

For many years it was widely believed that DB320 was originally the tomb of Queen Ahmose-Inhapi. However, recent research proved that her tomb was a different one located nearby. Some researchers also believe that DB320 was the tomb of Ahmose Merytamen.

There are other hypotheses however, and according to Nicholas Reeves, the tomb known nowadays as DB320 was the family tomb of Pinedjem II - a High Priest of Amun in the years 990 – 976, during the reign of the 21st Dynasty.

Mummy of Ahmose-Nefertari, Queen of pharaoh Ahmose of the 18th dynasty, found in DB320.

Mummy of Ahmose-Nefertari, Queen of pharaoh Ahmose of the 18th dynasty, found in DB320. ( Public Domain )

Egyptologists gained priceless information about the great kings and queens of Egypt through performing autopsies on the mummies found in DB320. The list of mummies discovered within the tomb can be placed into two distinct groups. The first of which consists of individuals from the Second Intermediate Period and the New Kingdom - which are poorly coffined and many of them are damaged. The second group is much better equipped and dates to the Third Intermediate Period.

The list of pharaohs is impressive and includes: Amosis, Ramesses I, Ramsses II, Ramesses III, Ramesses IX, Seti I, Tuthmosis I, Tuthmosis II, Tuthmosis III. Between the female mummies there were the greatest women of the Second Intermediate Period: Tetisheri, Ahhotpe I, Ahmose-Merytamun, Ahmose-Inhapy, but also New Kingdom princesses like Bakt and women connected with the Third Intermediate Period.

Most of the mummies were previously buried elsewhere, but during the Third Intermediate Period priests decided to relocate them into the safer place. It happened probably after the 11th year of Shoshenq I during the reign of the 22nd dynasty. The group from the Pinudjem II times, were coffined and not plundered when found. They occupied the end chamber, while the intrusive coffins were crammed into the corridors and the side chamber of the tomb. 

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Myths & Legends

The ride to Asgard" by Peter Nicolai Arbo. 1872.
In the beginning there were only native forests and wasteland. The Aesirs, one main group of Norse gods, cleared places to stay, both for themselves and the humans. They named the human’s home Midgard – because it is placed in the middle of the world. And in the middle of Midgard

Human Origins

Edgar Cayce (Credit: Edgar Cayce’s Association for Research and Enlightenment, Author provided)
For nearly 30 years I have returned to the famous “Sleeping Prophet” Edgar Cayce’s readings as a road map to try and piece together the complex origins of civilization and the creation of Homo sapiens. Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) was an American Christian mystic born in Hopkinsville, Kentucky who answered questions on subjects as varied as healing, reincarnation, wars, Atlantis, and future events while in a trance state.

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article