Examining the Impressive Ancient Roman Walls of Lugo

Examining the Impressive Ancient Roman Walls of Lugo

(Read the article on one page)

The territory of Galicia in Spain was conquered by the Romans c. 61 BC. The army led by Julius Caesar changed the beautiful scenery of this part of the Iberian Peninsula forever. Over the centuries, the Romans created a number of impressive buildings and changed the urban landscape. One of the greatest remains of those times are the city of Lugo’s Roman walls.

Lugo was founded by Celtic inhabitants, or pre-Roman people, who lived in Galicia. The first name of the city comes from the name of the Pan-Celtic God of light, arts, and oaths – Lugos. After the Romans conquered Galicia, a man known as Paulus Fabius Maximus created the city called Lucus Augusti in place of the old settlement. The first military camp appeared there in 13 BC.

Nowadays, Lugo is a city which is 332 km2 (128 sq. mi), and has a population of 98,560 (in 2014). It is the only city in the world which is surrounded by totally intact Roman Walls.

Map signaling the gates in the wall of Lugo (Galicia, Spain)

Map signaling the gates in the wall of Lugo (Galicia, Spain) (CC BY-SA 2.0 )

The Great Roman Walls of Lugo

The Roman walls of Lugo (Muralla Romana de Lugo) were constructed between 263 and 276 AD. These walls still enclose a small city center which is the heart of the site. Even during Roman times, not all of the city was protected by the walls, but only the most important part of it. The temples, houses of the nobles, and other important buildings were inside the walls. The southeastern part of the city was unprotected by the walls, but supported with a number of the other fortifications.

Roman wall / Muralla romana, Lugo.

Roman wall / Muralla romana, Lugo. ( CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 )

The walls reach a height of 10 to 15 meters (33 to 49 feet). They are 2,177 meters long (6,946 ft), and cover an area of 34.4 hectares. The circuit is ringed with 71 towers, and the walkway over the walls allows one to stroll along the entire length of the wall. The towers were built at irregular intervals. 49 of them are completely intact, but another 39 have only partially survived.

The walls consist of internal and external stone facing the core of the earth. It's a mixture of pebbles, gravel and worked Roman stone, cemented with water. The walls have been rebuilt over the centuries, but their shape has never been changed. Even many of the wall’s staircases are original.

The Roman Walls of Lugo still have 10 gates. Five of them are dated to the Roman times, but the other five were added after 1853 due to the expanding town population. Among the five original gates, the best preserved are the Porta Falsa and the Porta Miña. The second one is located near the only original vaulted arch set. The most popular gate is Porta Miña, which is on the way for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela.

An entrance of the Wall.

An entrance of the Wall. ( CC BY 2.0 )

A Brief History of Roman Galicia

Before the Romans arrived in Galicia, it was a land of tribes with origins that are still uncertain. Many researchers suggest that the local tribes mixed with Celts who arrived in Galicia from Ireland or Brittany, but others believe that the Celtic aspect of Galicia is a fairy tale.

Walls of Lugo during the night.

Walls of Lugo during the night. ( CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 )

Unfortunately, most of the knowledge about the tribes which lived in Galicia before the Roman invasion is also unknown. According to the Romans, people who they met in Galicia were “barbarians”, who spent the day fighting and night eating, drinking, dancing, and worshiping their ancient deities. More recent research shows that they were not as primitive as the Romans wanted to depict them. They probably had a feudal model of society, much more advanced than many people believed.

The first time Galicia appeared as an important location of a historical battle were the times of the Punic Wars between the Carthaginians and Romans. The southern part of Galicia was also perhaps an important place for Phoencians. During the Punic Wars, Hannibal decided to recruit many Galician people in his army. Henceforth, Galicians didn't want to become a part of the Roman Empire.

After conquering Iberia, the Romans had to face the Galician army in 137 BC during the battle at the river Douro. The army of c. 60,000 Galicians was destroyed by the Romans. The man who led the army – Decimus Junius Brutus – returned to Rome as a hero. At the end of his campaign, the Romans controlled the area of Galicia placed between the rivers Douro and Minho. The second invasion in 61 BC, led by Julius Caesar, took other parts of the region as well.

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Myths & Legends

Open Book Photo
A legend is a tale regarded as historical even though it has not been proven, and the term “myth” can refer to common yet false ideas. Many myths and legends describe our history, but they are often treated skeptically. This is because many of them, while explaining a phenomenon, involve divine or supernatural beings.

Human Origins

Noah's Sacrifice - watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot
The imperfect state of archaeological researches in the Near East impedes any definite identification of the original race or races that created the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. According to Gordon Childe, however, the predominant racial element in the earliest graves in the region from Elam to the Danube is the ‘Mediterranean’.

Ancient Technology

Invention of Wheel - Sumer
In today’s world, technology is developing at an unprecedented rate. The latest gadget today is tomorrow’s antique. As a result of this rapid development of technology, we often take things for...

Ancient Places

Google Earth image of manmade stone structures in Saudi Arabia
Deep in the heart of Saudi Arabia, 400 peculiar stone structures have been found, dating back thousands of years ago. These stone features were discovered by archaeologists with the use of satellite imagery, identifying what they call stone "gates" in an extremely unwelcome and harsh area of the Arabian Peninsula.


The ancient and mysterious Sphinx, Giza, Egypt.
In 1995, NBC televised a prime-time documentary hosted by actor Charlton Heston and directed by Bill Cote, called Mystery of the Sphinx. The program centered on the research and writings of John Anthony West, a (non-academic) Egyptologist, who, along with Dr. Robert Schoch, a professor of Geology at Boston University, made an astounding discovery on the Great Sphinx of Giza in Egypt.

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article