Egyptian Alexandria - Ancient underwater finds

Egyptian Alexandria - Ancient underwater finds revealed the Pharaonic roots of the Ptolemaic City

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Alexandria, located on the Mediterranean coast in Egypt, has seen many changes in its 2,300 year history. Founded by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C., at its height it rivalled Rome in its wealth and size, and was the seat for the Ptolemaic dynasty. However, through history not all agreed on the how to regard the Hellenistic city with a royal Egyptian past. An underwater temple discovered by marine divers off the eastern coast shed light on the pharaonic nature of ancient Alexandria.

Ptolemaic Alexandria has been regarded, in academic circles, not as part of Egypt, but as a separate Greek polis, or city-state, by the borders of Egypt. Peter Green, Professor of Classics at the University of Texas, Austin, confirms that Alexandria was not regarded as part of Egypt during the time of the Ptolemies, writing “Alexandria was ‘by’ Egypt, yet not of it.” 1

Alexander the Great founding Alexandria.

Alexander the Great founding Alexandria. Public Domain

This view, however, appeared only since the mid-19 th century. Before that date, Ptolemaic Alexandria had always been looked at as being an Egyptian city, representing ancient Pharaonic civilization. “In a decree passed by the people of Delos in honour of a Naxian, at a time when the island lay under the influence of Philadelphus (Ptolemy II), the honorand is described ‘resident in Alexandria of Egypt’. Alexandria was evidently regarded by the Delians … as a normal part of Egypt. ” None of the classical sources spoke of Alexandria as being a Greek city. Polybius, Diodorus and Strabo, three authors who visited Ptolemaic Alexandria and wrote about its early history, spoke about the Egyptian nature of this first cosmopolitan city in history. 2

In 1998, an important archaeological discovery was made in Alexandria which confirmed the pharaonic nature of Egyptian Alexandria. Under the heading “Sea gives up Cleopatra’s treasures”, the London Sunday Times reported the story on 25 October 1998: “Secrets of Cleopatra’s fabled royal palace, in which she wooed Julius Caesar, have been retrieved from beneath the waves of the Mediterranean sea, where they have lain for more than 1,600 years” 

Location of Cleopatra’s Palace

Location of Cleopatra’s Palace. (

This remarkable discovery came about after the European Institute of Underwater Archaeology (IEASM) had been given permission in the 1990s to work in the east part of the Eastern Harbour, where the Ptolemaic royal quarter was situated. 

Statue of Cleopatra as Egyptian goddess; Basalt, second half of the 1st century B.C.

Statue of Cleopatra as Egyptian goddess; Basalt, second half of the 1st century B.C.  George Shuklin/ Wikimedia Commons

After some years of mapping and searching the area, Frank Goddio , the French leader of the underwater team of archaeologists, was able to announce before the end of 1998 that he had discovered the royal palace of Cleopatra (51-30 B.C.), the last of the Ptolemaic rulers.

Goddio’s divers found marble floors on the seabed which he believes established for the first time the precise location of Cleopatra’s palace. They also found lumps of red granite and broken columns on the submerged island of Antirhodos, which provided Goddio with further evidence of the site of the royal quarters. Remains of Cleopatra’s royal palace were retrieved from beneath the waters of the Mediterranean Sea where they had disappeared for 17 centuries. The divers reported seeing columns and capitals in disorder, kilns and basins - some of which were described as the so-called ‘Baths of Cleopatra’; great blocks of dressed limestone, statues of Egyptian divinities, and even walls. (click here for pictures).


Days later the international press started to give more details about the discovery. A sphinx and an important religious statue appeared for the first time after about 2,000 years, when they were dragged from their resting place in the submerged royal city of Ancient Alexandria. The dark-gray granite sphinx, which has been identified as Cleopatra’s father, Ptolemy XII Auletes, was one of a pair flanking the statue at the entrance to a small temple set within the area of Cleopatra’s Royal Palace on the island of Antirhodos, in Alexandria’s Eastern Harbour.

Black granite sphinx made of stone, thought to represent Ptolemy XII, father of Cleopatra. Discovered by Frank Goddio during underwater investigations of underwater ancient Alexandria.

Black granite sphinx made of stone, thought to represent Ptolemy XII, father of Cleopatra. Discovered by Frank Goddio during underwater investigations of underwater ancient Alexandria. ( Source)

Egyptian King Ptolemy XII Auletes, father to Cleopatra. Temple of Kom Ombo.

Egyptian King Ptolemy XII Auletes, father to Cleopatra. Temple of Kom Ombo. Hedwig Storch/Wikimedia Commons

As this temple to the Egyptian goddess Isis was not mentioned by Strabo, the ancient authority on Ptolemaic Alexandra, Frank Goddio, who led the international team of divers and archaeologists that lifted the relics 20 feet (6 meters) to the surface, was delighted at the discovery. Goddio was reported by the Sunday Times as saying, “It’s totally unknown … but of course we should have expected such a temple in close proximity to the Royal Palace. It’s an astonishing discovery.” 


There have been a few very well preserved anomalies from these Mediterranean shores already. Maybe they can find remnants from the library which would be ultimately interesting

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