Was Bolivia-Peru the Sunset Land of the Sumerians?
In an article on the Fuente Magna Bowl , April Holloway highlighted the evidence of Sumerian writing in South America. The Fuente Magna Bowl and Pokotia monument indicate that Sumerians may have formerly lived in South America.
The possibility that the writing on the Fuente Magna Bowl was used by the Sumerians, and the identification of Sumerian placenames on the Altiplano suggest that Bolivia and Peru may represent the "Tin Land of the West" or the "Sunset Land", of Sumerian inscriptions.
A figure on the Fuente Magna bowl. (Courtesy of Bernardo Biados’s research team)
The Fuente Magna Bowl was found to have two types of scripts engraved on the inside. (Courtesy of Bernardo Biados’s research team)
The Sumerians mention a land in the West called Kuga-ki where they mined valuable metals. Dr. A.H. Sayce said that Tin-land in Sumerian was KUGA-KI. Sayce made it clear that Sumerians claimed that they obtained tin from this land.
Prof. A.H. Sayce
The ancient Sumerians were great navigators. Sumerian Ships sailed to Egypt, Northeast Africa, and the Indus Valley in search of metals and goods to support their industry and popular demands for goods by the people. Samuel N. Kramer in The Sumerians , said that Egypt in the Sumerian inscriptions was Magan, and the Indus Valley was called Dilmun.
- The Legacy of Armenia: Trade, Metallurgy, and Forging of Precious Metals of the Ancient World
- Fuente Magna, the Controversial Rosetta Stone of the Americas
- Mountains of Silver: Tiny Bolivian village of Potosi was once the largest industrial mining complex in the world
King Sargon in 2700 BC mentions that Kuga-Ki was part of his Empire. Prof. Sayce, in a paper named “Geography of Sargon of Akkad”, published in the journal Ancient Egypt , translated a document written by a 8th Century B.C., Assyrian official . The document stated that Sargon I , Empire included "the countries from the rising to the setting of the sun, which Sargon the . . . king conquered with his hand," included amongst many other lands "the Land of Gutium," "the land of the Muru (or Amorites)" and (Kuga-Ki) "the Tin-land country which lies beyond the Upper Sea (or Mediterranean)."
Bronze head of a king, most likely Sargon of Akkad. ( Public Domain )
Sayce believed that Kuga-Ki was probably located in Spain. The presence of the Fuente Magna Bowl suggests that Kuga-Ki was in South America instead of Spain. Since Kuga-Ki was west of the Mediterranean it was probably the name for some region in North or South America, because the Americas lie west of the Meditteranean Sea, while Spain lies on the Meditterranean.
A.H Verrill and R. Verrill, in Americas Ancient Civilizations , and J. Bailey in Sailing to Paradise , maintain that the area around Lake Titicaca may have been called Lake Manu by the Sumerians. According to the Verrills and Bailey, traditions claim that Sumerians made many visits to the land west of the Mediterranean, which they called the Kuga-ki. The traditions make it clear that Sumerians sailed to Kuga-ki in their Magur ships. Cuneiform tablets make it clear the Magur ships could carry 18.5 metric tons of precious metals.
The Sumerians probably first made contact with Kuga-kivia, the Atlantic currents that take you from Africa to Brazil. Prospectors probably reached Brazil, and sailed down the Amazon river until they found large tin deposits in Bolivia-Peru. The major center for mining in Bolivia-Peru is and was Potosi.
Map of the Amazon River ( Source)
Once they established mining operations in Kuga-ki, local people probably began to work in the mining operations and adopted many Sumerian customs, linguistic terms and the social technology of writing, i.e., the Proto-Sumerian script. This means that writing has a long tradition among the people of Bolivia-Peru as Clyde Winters writes in Ancient Scripts in South America .
Kingdom of the Antis
The Andes may have been the Tin land or Kuga-Ki of the Sumerians. The Andes mountains were originally called Antis. This area was formerly called Antisuyo, Kingdom of the Antis. This was also the homeland of the Antis Indians. In the Quechua language spoken by many Indians in the area, antis means copper. Antis was also the name for the native peoples who formerly lived in this part of South America.
Antis is probably of non-Quechua origin. The Chipaya language, another Native American language spoken in the area, is different from Quechua and Aymara. Some researchers claim Chipaya is closely related to the Maya languages which are spoken in Mexico.