Giza, The Time Keeper of the Ages: Alignments, Measurements, and Moon Cycles
How did ancient Egyptians tell the exact day and night of the summer and the winter solstices, or the equinoxes of spring and autumn? How could they tell the days when the flooding of the River Nile, Egypt’s lifeline, were approaching? How could they note the lunar cycles of the Moon ruling women’s menses? Did they know the approximate distance between the Earth and the Sun? Did they have markings for each passing day on the covering slabs of the Great Pyramid – removed since antiquity?
Hungarian architect András Gőczey applied an engineer’s systematic mindset to find the missing pieces of the age-old puzzle. Searching for answers, he built models of the small pyramids east of Khufu’s pyramid and south of Menkaure’s, observing the shadows cast, and calculated their changes as adjusted to the longitude, latitude and the positions of the two luminaries. Building on the work of noted alternative researchers like Robert Bauval and Robert M. Schoch, and relying on larger cycles such as the Platonic year of precession (25,920 years), his work can resolve many theories that researchers had suspected or dreamed about but could never prove.
The following article is a summary of some of the highlights of his findings:
The Giza Pyramid Complex map ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )
Giza has four important structures. The lengthwise axis of the Sphinx faces the true east, aligned with the three pyramids of Khufu, Khaefre and Menkaure.
Giza structures are precisely aligned. (© Andras Goczey)
The base planes of these exact geometrical structures are precisely aligned to north, south east and west. Khufu’s and Menkaure’s pyramids have three satellite pyramids each, aligned to the four directions. There is a straight line between the big Khaefre pyramid and the small ones south of it.
The Sphinx is on the east of the site map of Giza. The exact date when it was built is unknown to archaeologists, but we know that it was reconstructed around 1500 BC with a new layer of stone slabs. The stone slabs covered up and hid erosion marks running lengthwise on the Sphinx, which according to Geologist Robert Schoch, had developed five to seven thousand years before the reconstruction.
The head of the Sphinx was possibly made at the same time as the pyramids of Giza, but there are controversies surrounding the question whether the head was re-carved from the original stone or whether it was replaced by a new one.
The Great Sphinx of Giza. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )
The most interesting part of the Sphinx, however, is the direction of its head, which points exactly to the East with the sun rising exactly above it every year, on March 21st. Furthermore, standing behind the Sphinx and looking into the same direction, East, time can be tracked at night through the movement of the constellations. A constellation from this viewpoint moves one degree every 72 years, and a completely new constellation takes its place every 2,160 years. Given that there are twelve constellations, a total circle of each twelve are completed every 25,920 years.
Dimensions of the Giza Site Plan in Royal Egyptian Cubits (© Andras Goczey. Measurements from J.A.R. Legon, 'The Plan of the Giza Pyramids', Archaeological Reports of the Archaeology Society of Staten Island, Vol.10 No.1. New York, 1979.)
In 2000, J.A.R. Legon measured up the site plan of the Giza pyramids using the standard ancient Egyptian measurement, the royal cubit.
The Giza-pyramids and Giza Necropolis, Egypt, seen from above. (Public Domain )
The relationship between the apex of the pyramid of Khafre and the low terrain point of the Khufu pyramid is important as it indicates where the sun rises on the 21st of June, which is the date of the summer solstice. The tangent angle is easily calculated using Legon's measurements. The length of the adjacent side, 455.5 cubit divided by the length of the opposite side, 858.5 cubit, equals to 0.53, which is 27.9° tangentially. This gives us the angle between the summer solstice and the straight line to the East. Measuring that same angle down from the same line gives us the winter solstice, where the sun rises on the 21st of December. The line indicating the winter solstice hits the exact corner of Kentkawes pyramid the same way the summer solstice line hits the corner of Khufu pyramid.
Sumerian Clay tablet made with a cylinder seal. ( Source)