The Jessie Willcox Smith Mother Goose (1914) (Wikimedia Commons)

English Nursery Rhymes with Unexpected and Sometimes Disturbing Historical Origins

(Read the article on one page)

Many people associate nursery rhymes with reading happy stories to children, or remember being children themselves and chanting them while they play. However, the popular explanations for the origins of several English nursery rhymes shows that they may be more complex and at times more disturbing than they first appear.

There is controversy regarding exact dates when they were created and the message behind some of these rhymes. Nonetheless, most researchers agree that often the rhymes were meant to provide morals and values, or warnings, to their audience.

Some researchers have also suggested that these seemingly nonsensical rhymes were not really meant for children at all, nor are they nonsense. Instead, the rhymes were steeped with political and satirical messages, created in such a way to confuse the authorities listening; thus, preventing legal or other backlash.

1. Baa Baa Black Sheep: Feudal Taxes

Baa Baa Black Sheep (1916) Dorothy Miller (Wikimedia Commons)

Baa Baa Black Sheep (1916) Dorothy Miller ( Wikimedia Commons )

Baa baa black sheep, have you any wool?
Yes sir, yes sir, three bags full!
One for the master, one for the dame
But none for the little boy who cries down the lane. (Final line until the late 16th century)


And one for the little boy who lives down the lane. (Changes to be more suitable for children.)

Baa Baa Black Sheep was first published in 1744. However, most scholars claim that this rhyme is based on the reality of life in feudal times in England in general and the export tax for wool farmers of 1275 created by King Edward I (the master) in particular. The "bags of wool" (or produce from the farmers) first went to the nobles, then the church, and in the end practically nothing was left for the poor "little boy" (farmers).

2. Mary Mary Quite Contrary: A Cruel or Tragic Queen

Mary, Mary Quite Contrary (1860) (Wikimedia Commons)

Mary, Mary Quite Contrary (1860) ( Wikimedia Commons )

Mary Mary quite contrary,
How does your garden grow?
With silver bells and cockle shells
And pretty maids all in a row

According to some researchers Mary Mary, also published in 1744, refers to "Bloody Mary," Mary Tudor or Mary Stewart - Mary Queen of Scots. Mary Tudor was a strict Catholic and during her reign from 1553-1558 her garden (a graveyard) grew as many protestants were executed for not converting to Catholicism. "Silver bells" and "cockle shells" may have been the nicknames of torture devices (thumbscrews and instruments attached to the genitals). The "maids" (shortened from maiden) in the rhyme is thought to be another nickname - for another device for torture or the guillotine.

If Mary Queen of Scots is the Mary referred to, then the "silver bells" and "cockle shells" are said to be a mention to ornaments she received on a dress from her first husband, the Dauphin Francis II of France. In this interpretation the "pretty maids" are Mary Stewart's ladies in waiting.

3. Goosey, Goosey, Gander: Religious Persecution/an Obligation to Pray

Goosey, Goosey, Gander (Mamalisa)

Goosey, Goosey, Gander ( Mamalisa)

Goosey, goosey, gander,
Whither dost thou wander?
Upstairs and downstairs
And in my lady's chamber.

There I met an old man
Who wouldn't say his prayers;
I took him by the left leg,
And threw him down the stairs

First published in 1784, Goosey, Goosey, Gander also refers to the Catholic persecution in the 16th century. At the time "priest holes" became popular as Catholics set up small hidden rooms in their homes to pray. If zealous Protestants found the Catholic praying in Latin, than the whole family would be executed. The "left leg" in the  rhyme is claimed to be the nickname for Catholics at the time as "left-leggers."

Another interpretation suggests that this rhyme may simply be a warning by its creator for listeners/readers to pray or they will receive unfortunate consequences.

4. Humpty Dumpty: A Heavy Person Or a Cannon

Humpty Dumpty and Alice from Through the Looking Glass, J. Tenniel (Wikimedia Commons)

Humpty Dumpty and Alice from Through the Looking Glass, J. Tenniel ( Wikimedia Commons )

Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
All the King's horses, And all the King's men
Couldn't put Humpty together again!


Threescore men and threescore more,
Could not place Humpty as he was before.

Humpty Dumpty (published in 1799) also has two possible meanings. A "Humpty Dumpty" is claimed to be a nickname used in the fifteenth century for an overweight person.


angieblackmon's picture

Some of these I knew and was familiar with….others not so much. Love getting to the root of the rhyme though! :)


love, light and blessings


Bloody Mary was the third queen of England, not Mary Queen of Scots, who was born on 7th December 1542, perhaps you are confusing your Queen Marys ?


Spot on with your comment. 'Bloody Mary' was the Queen preceding Elizabeth the first, who had Mary Queen of Scots executed. The article is poorly researched.

How much of the article did some of you read before posting comment on the research the mind boggles here is what the author wrote "According to some researchers Mary Mary, also published in 1744, refers to "Bloody Mary," Mary Tudor or Mary Stewart". and as for the guillotine well would a wireless be considered a radio, an SUV considered a car. Yes to both so therefore a Gibbet et al is a guillotine and one occasion is in Ireland 1307 a Muchod Ballagh, ws executed in Merton county Ireland on the 1st of april of said year as reported in the Holinshed chronicles of Scotland Ireland and England published 2 centuries after the event but none the less an important historical document influencing many of the time including Shakespeare.

angieblackmon's picture

Some of these I knew and was familiar with….others not so much. Love getting to the root of the rhyme though! :)


love, light and blessings



Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Top New Stories

The underwater ruins of Fuxian Lake in China are an enigma. Their age is enough to set the forgotten city apart, but the strange carvings still gracing the submerged stones really confuses archaeologists.
In an underwater investigation in Fuxian Lake, Yunnan Province, China, started on June 13, 2006, archeologists discovered remains of a group of huge ancient buildings at the bottom of the lake. The investigation team found numerous regularly placed stones featuring mysterious carvings.

Myths & Legends

Pagan Origins of Easter
Easter Sunday is a festival and holiday celebrated by millions of people around the world who honour the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred three...

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article