Stones in the South Circle viewed from the south-east quadrant bank. The tower of St James church is in the background.

The Geometry Thickens: Square Stone Formation Detected at the Center of Avebury Stone Circle

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A peculiar square formation was recently discovered within the Neolithic stone circle monument at Avebury, thus reshaping the traditional narrative of one of the wonders of the prehistoric world.

“Hidden” and Unique Stones Could be Some of the Earliest Structures in Britain

Experts consider that the hidden stones, recently discovered with the help of radar technology, were one of the earliest structures at the site and could have possibly honored a Neolithic building structure to around 3500 BC. As the Guardian reports , archaeologists previously suggested that the huge stone outer circle – which at 330 meters in diameter is the largest in Europe –  had been constructed from the outside inwards. The most recent work, however, shows that a lowly wooden building that possibly served as a center of interest for the Neolithic community, seeded the monument with a successive series of stone structures springing up around it over hundreds of years.

Part of Avebury outer stone circle

Part of Avebury outer stone circle ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Mark Gillings, an archaeologist at the University of Leicester who directed the work, told the Guardian, “Our working interpretation is that the house is the first thing. It falls into ruin but they’re still remembering and respecting it. They put a square around it about 3000 BC and then the circles. It’s like ripples on a pond coming out from the house.”

Gillings and his team spotted the positions of the prehistoric standing stones, which they speculate were hidden and buried for many years, while they suggest there are more stones at the site which most likely were destroyed during the 17th and 18th centuries. Usually, henge monuments like Stonehenge are round, making Avebury extremely rare, a fact that gives new meaning to the recently discovered formation.

The original square monument with the huge obelisk in the center (Credit: School of Archaeology & Ancient History, University of Leicester)

The original square monument with the huge obelisk in the center (Credit: School of Archaeology & Ancient History, University of Leicester)

New Formation Changes the Traditional Narrative

First evidence to the existence of a square structure, each side of which was around 30 meters in length, were first discovered by the archaeologist Alexander Keiller who carried out an excavation at the site in 1939. Keiler would discover a few small stones positioned in a line close to a 6-metre upright stone known as the Obelisk. Keiller’s excavation would also divulge postholes and grooves in the ground, indicating that a building was once standing there, “He concluded that it was a strange medieval lean-to cattle shed,” Gillings tells the Guardian.

Nevertheless, when the newly found square was compared with Keiller’s notes, archaeologists discovered that the stones were centered on and lined up with the building, indicating that it was Neolithic in origin. Similar Neolithic buildings have recently been discovered at other sites and experts suggest that they probably served as a centre of interest for communities. “It completely changes the narrative. The seed might have been in the form of a small inconspicuous house. The commemoration gradually got more dramatic and in your face and by 2,000 BC you’ve got stones everywhere,” Gillings tells the Guardian.

Avebury stone circle, the largest known stone circle in the world.

Avebury stone circle , the largest known stone circle in the world. ( CC BY SA 2.0 )

National Trust archaeologist at Avebury Nick Snashall added, “This discovery has been almost 80 years in the making but it’s been well worth waiting for. The completion of work first started by Keiller in the 1930s has revealed an entirely new type of monument at the heart of the world’s largest prehistoric stone circle, using techniques he never dreamed of.” So the question now is: Will the new finds become the reason for organized arachaeological excavations launch at the site? Gillings leaves no doubt with his answer, “Hell yeah. If this doesn’t I don’t know what would. We’d like to go in and excavate and tease out more of the details.”

Top image: Stones in the South Circle viewed from the south-east quadrant bank. The tower of St James church is in the background. (By JimChampion CC BY-SA 3.0 )

By Theodoros Karasavvas


chris6a2's picture

The photo was obtained from, Ancient Origins shared the photo with Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0). Which is under the photo description and it links back to the website where the photo was obtained. Maybe you should email



please remove my air photo of Avebury from this page. It has been used without permission and my copyright notice has been stripped off.
Pete Glastonbury

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