A photo showing some stelae found with Arabic inscriptions.

Archaeologists Discover that Earliest Known Arabic Writing Was Penned by a Christian

The oldest known Arabic writing found in Saudi Arabia, from ca. 470 AD belong to a Christian context and predates the advent of Islam with 150 years.

In December 2015, researchers from a French-Saudi expedition studying rock inscriptions in southern Saudi Arabia published a 100-page-long report in France’s Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres that reported that the oldest Arabic text, carved on a large rectangular stone that was found in Saudi Arabia, is simply of a name, “Thawban (son of) Malik,” decorated with a Christian cross. The same cross systematically appears on the other similar stelae dating more or less to the same period.

The discovery is sensational since it shows that the origins of the Arabic alphabet used to write the Koran belongs to a Christian context. This pre-Islamic alphabet is also called Nabatean Arabic, because it evolved from the script used by the Nabateans, the once-powerful nation that built Petra and dominated the trade routes in the southern Levant and northern Arabia before being annexed by the Romans in the early 2nd century.

Example of Nabatean script to the god Qasiu. Basalt, 1st century AD. Found in Sia in the Hauran, Southern Syria.

Example of Nabatean script to the god Qasiu. Basalt, 1st century AD. Found in Sia in the Hauran, Southern Syria. (Public Domain)

The ancient text is a legacy of a once flourishing Christian community in the area also linked to the rise of an ancient Jewish kingdom that ruled over much of what is today Yemen and Saudi Arabia

Christians in the Desert

The Muslim tradition preserved in the book of Koran portrays the pre-Islamic region as chaotic and filled with unrest that Mohammed manages to unify with the help of the powerful message of Islam

However, the Islamic text makes no mention of the numerous Christian and Jewish communities across the Saudi peninsula that flourished during the days of Mohammed.

Recent studies of works by ancient Christians and Muslim records have re-shaped our image of the societies that existed in the region and shed new light on the complex history of the region before the advent of Islam. One of the important kingdoms in Arabia at the time was the Jewish kingdom of Himyar.

A bronze statue of Dhamar Ali Yahbur II, a Himyarite King who probably reigned in late 3rd or early 4th century AD. Displayed in Sana'a National Museum.

A bronze statue of Dhamar Ali Yahbur II, a Himyarite King who probably reigned in late 3rd or early 4th century AD. Displayed in Sana'a National Museum. (CC BY 2.0)

The kingdom was founded in the 2nd century AD, and around 380 AD the elites of the kingdom of Himyar converted to some form of Judaism. By the 4th century,

Himyar had become an important player in the struggle for regional power. The Kingdom of Himyar’s headquarters was situated in what is today Yemen, from where its expansionist rulers led a series of campaigns conquering into its neighboring states, including the legendary biblical kingdom of Sheba.

Royal inscriptions found in the Saudi capital of Riyadhand and Bir Hima, north of Yemen, attest how the Himyarite kingdom during the 5th century expanded its influence into central Arabia, the Persian Gulf area, and into the region of Mecca and Medina, known as Hijaz.

Pre-Islamic rock art of Arabia at Bir Hima, carved into the eastern foothills of the Asir Mountains of Saudi Arabia.

Pre-Islamic rock art of Arabia at Bir Hima, carved into the eastern foothills of the Asir Mountains of Saudi Arabia. (CC BY 2.0)

According to ancient Christian sources, the Christians of the nearby city of Najran suffered a wave of persecution by the Himyarites in 470. The name of Thawban son of Malik appears on eight inscriptions, along with the names of other Christians. The French experts believe these inscriptions are a form of commemoration of Thawban and his fellow Christians that were martyred as they refused to convert to Judaism.

The researchers believe that the Christians choice of the early Arabic script to memorialize their comrades was an act of resistance that stood in sharp contrast to the inscriptions left by Himyarite rulers in their native Sabaean. To adopt a new writing system was a way of manifesting a separation from Himyar, and at the same time, a means to approach the rest of the Arabs to unify against their common enemy.

A portion of a war scene from the Himyarite era.

A portion of a war scene from the Himyarite era. (CC BY SA 3.0)

The growing resistance and outside pressure eventually brought down Himyar. In the years around 500, it fell to Christian invaders from the Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum. For the next century, Himyar was a Christian kingdom that continued to exert control over Arabia. During the latter half of the 6th century, one of its rulers, Abraha, marched through Bir Hima, conquering, Yathrib, the desert oasis that 70 years later would become known as Medina – The City of the Prophet.

Featured Image: A photo showing some stelae found with Arabic inscriptions. Source: Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA)

By Sam Bostrom


The extent of historical misinformation in this article qualifies it to be a Trump's speech who loves the "poorly educated" !!!!!
Christianity and Judaism were present in Arabia long before Islam was "revealed" (not "advent" as intentionally erroneous as mentioned in the article )...... There was a huge Jewish community in Yathrib or Medina (the city where Prophet Muhammad moved to after leaving Mecca and the site of the first Islamic community and state). This community lived in peace with the Islamic community till they allied with the infidels of Mecca and betrayed the Muslims in the battle of the Trench (Ghazwah al-Khandaq) when they allowed some infidel troops to pass through their territories which were excluded from the trench and stab the Muslims in the back !!!!! They were then deported from Medina in a series of battles !
There were a Christian state, a satellite of the Christian kingdom of Abyssinia in Yemen. In the year Prophet Muhammad was born, Abraha , the Abyssinian, the assigned ruler of the Christian state of Yemen (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraha) built a church in Yemen and invaded Mecca to destroy the Kaaba and convert the Arabian infidels to Christianity !!!!! He tried to use a huge elephant to crumble the Kaaba ...... The campaign was disastrous and the army of Abraha vanished in the perimeter of the Kaaba though he met no resistance on the way there and the people of Mecca fled and left their sacred place totally defenseless !!!!!
Neither Quran, Muhammad or Muslims deny the presence of Judaism or Christianity in Arabia before Islam. Christianity was present in Iraq (Lakhmids) (a satellite under the Persian rule , like East Germany during the cold war era!)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lakhmids) and the Ghassanids in Shaam (adjacent areas of northern Arabia, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghassanids) (They were satellite state of the Roman Empire like West Germany during the cold war) ...... Both states (Lakkmids and Ghassanids were Christians but with different doctrines (Lakhmids were mostly Orthodox while Ghassanids were mostly Catholic) as a sequel of the rivality between the two dominant superpowers of the pre-Islamic era (Persians and Romans). But both were Arabs. In addition, it is mentioned in the books which narrate the life, acts and teachings of Muhammad (Sera) that when the Kaaba was rebuilt during the life of Muhammad, it was built by a Christian mason. One of the earliest followers of Muhammad (Suhayb , the Roman or Suhayb ar-Rumi) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suhayb_ar-Rumi) was a Roman Christian living in Mecca !!!!
About Arabic Writing, Arabic as as old as Hebrew as Arabs belong the the first son of Abraham (Ishmail) as Jews refer to Isaac as their father. The Arabs used to write the best Arabic poems in Gold and hang them on the walls of the most revered place (Kaaba) in what is called as the Mu'allaqat or (Hanging Poems)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mu'allaqat). Their number is controversial but mostly they were 10 Mu'allaqat . These poems are still preserved till today (not the writings) and are considered as the gems of Arabic poetry ! This tradition was present hundreds of years before Muhammad or the revelation (no advent) of Islam !!!! So, Arabic writings were extremely older than what you are "Trumping" in this article !!!!
"Love for the poorly educated" !!!!!

Whatever, you may say what you want history will not change because you order it to do so.

Si vis pacem, para bellum

Did you not read in the article that they are speaking of Nabatean Arabic? What in the world does Trump have to do with this? It's a shame Islam is disagreeable to education, especially towards it's females.("Love for the poorly educated" !!!!!) You proved nothing wrong in the article, you merely added to it.
Advent simply means, the coming or arrival of something or someone that is important or worthy of note: such as the advent of the computer, you seem to have misunderstood it to mean the religious meaning of the word.
Ishmael was born under slavery to Hagar an Egyptian and slave (handmaid) of Sarah, Abraham's wife, and are still under spiritual slavery today but it was through Isaac birthed by Sarah his wife, not concubine or slave (not under slavery but freedom) the the promises would be fulfilled. (we are freed from the law of sin and death)
You intimate the Jews do not count Abraham as their father, that simply is not true. The Muslims seem to want to claim an exclusivity to Abraham but Moses wrote quit clearly, as God was quite clear to Moses that the promise would come through Isaac born of his wife. Yet he said that God would make of Ishmael a great nation as well God had already promised to make of Abraham a great nation because God saw the grief of Hagar, Sarah's slave (handmaid) When Ishmael was born their names were Abram and Sari, before the birth of Isaac God changed their names to Abraham and Sarah.

Edit: "God had already promised to make of Abraham a great nation" in last the paragraph should have been in parentheses to be more easily understood.

Referring to "Trump" as a name or a verb (meaning uttering vulgar language and menthioning myths and utter hallucinations and preoccupations as facts (all Muslims are terrorists and should be banned and denied entry in the promiosed paradise of USA . All Mexican immigrants are rapists, druggists and criminals who should be outcast and shipped back to Mexico . I will build a wall, 10 feets high to barricade paradise (aka USA) off hell (aka Mexico)) ...... C.A Martin is using the same rehotoric when he mentions that Muslims are denying their women education !!!!! Or Muslims are disagreeable to Education !!!!! very funny indeed !!!!! Especially from someone who believes in words like 1 Cornithians 1:19-21 (For it is written: "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise; the intelligence of the intelligent I will frustrate." . Where is the wise person? Where is the teacher of the law? Where is the philosopher of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?. For since in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom did not know him, God was pleased through the foolishness of what was preached to save those who believe.) ..... Through Trump's foolishness , America will be great again (may be with the resurrection of the Ko Klux Klan , White Supremacy and re-introduction of slavery !!!!!! The Klan undeniably supports this rhetoric of Trump) ...... So, somebody who is preached with "Foolishness" is mocking about the lack of education of people whom the first word in their sacred book was "Read !"..... In psychology we call this as "Psychological Projection" , i.e. projecting someone faults and personality disorders on others ( e.g. a thief would quiten his conscience which is troubling him by convincing himself that all the people are thieves someway or the other! Or a fool or lunatic who is accusing all other people around him that they are the fools or lunatics ! ) !!!!!! Islam is not ISIS or Taliban except in the minds which are as sick as those of ISIS and Taliban !
Thank you for your lecture about slavery and law of slavery of Hagar and her son !!!!! That proves my point that I stated above !!!! No sane mind will approve slavery or invent a law for it except the same mind who considers that human blood "of the innocent" is required for atonement of sins " of the perpetual sinners" !!!!!
Well, back to the main topic !!!!!! The writer of this "twisted" article mentions "However, the Islamic text makes no mention of the numerous Christian and Jewish communities across the Saudi peninsula that flourished during the days of Mohammed. " .... I proved that Quran and Islamic texts about the biography of Muhammad were not ashamed to mention the presence of Christian minorities on the periphery of the Arabian peninsula in Iraq, Shaam (northern Arabia) and Yemen. Also Jews were present , and still present, in Yemen and lived as neighbors with the new Islamic state in Yathrib (Medina) ! That is the first fallacy !!!!
The second fallacy is attributing Arabic writing to just 100 years before the birth of Prophet Muhammad and that Christians were the writing ones ..... The Mo'allaqat which are the gems of Arabic Poetry and pinned to the walls of the holiest place in Arabia (Kaaba) have history predating that and none of the poets of those gems was Christian !!!!
Last thing, there is always the mix between Arabs and Muslims which is a funny mix that denotes poor knowledge and poor education ..... Not all Arabs are Muslims , and not all Muslims are Arabs or speak Arabic !!!!
Muslims do not believe that Islam was an "advent" and Muhammad established Islam ..... They believe Islam was the religion of Abraham (was Abraham a Christian or a Jew from the Judo-Christian view, did he believe in Jehovah or in Jesus as deity?) and Muhammad just revived the old religion ! ..... Surah 6. Al-An'am, Ayah 163, Abraham talking about God (He has no peer; thus am I commanded and I am the first of the Muslims) ..... Yet, you have to prove from the bible that Jesus (aka , Joshua Ben Pandera) called his new religion as Christianity or that he declared that he was preaching a new religion , not a reform movement or a sect of Judaism !!!!!

Instead of Trumping or accusations of belonging to terrorism , can anybody with a no-trump scientific mind discuss the two points that I mentioned in this article:
1- Christianity was present at the periphery of Arabia in Shaam, and Yemen. Islamic history and Quran never ignored or denied such facts. It is no point to claim that an archaeological discovery is a proof for such presence as if Arabs and Muslims were hiding such facts !!!!!! Zoroastrianism was present in Eastern Arabia. The central Arabia (Most of Saudi Arabia) were idolators , yet they were trading with the Christians in Shaam northwards and Yemen Southwards ! So, this article's claim that this proves the presence of Christianity in Arabia is a false claim!
2- The claim that Arabic writing was just 100 years before the birth of Muhammad is a false claim. Arabs used to write the poetry and the gems of Arabic poetry were written in gold and pinned to the walls of the holiest place in Arabia, Kaaba !!!!! Arabic writing predates the date mentioned in this article and none of the writers of the Mo-alaquat was Christian !!!!!
3- Advent, revelation or even "invent" is not the point as the writer of this article (by the way, where is he and why he does not answer my criticism and why did he change and twisted the data in the previous "original" article"?) (http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-general/oldest-arabic-inscription-pr...) is not a Muslim . But he could be more respectful !
4- Most important ! As a man of science and a no-Trump, I searched about the sources of this article and why the author added some faulty information to the original one , here are the findings :
a- There is no mention of an article mentioning such a discovery in Saudi Arabia in the site of the french academy of inscriptions and ancient languages when I put (Arabie Saoudite - "Saudi Arabia in French " , I'm French literate by the way and nobody can fool me about a French article) (http://www.aibl.fr/spip.php?page=recherche&lang=en&recherche=Ara...) ..... Got no results dating to 2014, the date of the purported discovery !!!! or Frédéric Imbert , the one to which this discovey is attributed except this (Graffiti islamiques du début de l’islam : nouvelles découvertes en Arabie saoudite, par M. Frédéric Imbert) except for his discovery of Arabic inscription dating back to the debut of Islam (http://www.canalacademie.com/ida10344-Graffiti-islamiques-du-debut-de-l-...) !!!!!
b- The only mention of such a discovery in addition to ancient-origins.net which dealt with the discovery in two articles , an original (8 August, 2014 - 03:33 aprilholloway) (http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-general/oldest-arabic-inscription-pr...) and this one after two long years with certain twisting and trumping (21 March, 2016 - 23:51 Sam Bostrom) !!!!! In addition to some Israeli newspapers , with another kind of trumping (this article trumps on Arabia was originally "Christian" before being Islamized ..... The Jewish-israeli version is that Arabia was Jewish before being "Islamized" .... (http://historybuff.com/remember-when-saudi-arabia-was-jewish-kingdom-MWV...)...... (http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/archaeology/.premium-1.709010), both are harping on the same idea , Saudi Arabia was a Jewish property !!!!
c- Le Monde (famous French Magazine) mentions nothing of crosses or Christians of the desert .... Totally similar to the ancient ancient.origins.net article dating in 2014 (http://www.lemonde.fr/sciences/article/2014/08/01/decouverte-archeologiq...) as well as the the source cited by Sam's article (http://www.arabnews.com/news/art-culture/611411)!
d- It is no problem to find Arabic writings in Najran (previously a part of Yemen which was Christian at the time of the Prophet Muhammad . From Yemen, Abraha, the deputy of the Abyssinian emperor in Yemen, moved with his army and herd of elephant to destroy the Kaaba. This army was destroyed and vanished at the foot of the Kaaba as mentioned in the Quranic chapter , the Elephant (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Fil)) ..... So, there is no problem in finding Christian texts in Najran, Yemen or Shaam and no astounding ,critical, embarrassing or unique discovery in that as I previously indicated !
e- I did not comment on the previous article (two years before by April Holloway) because it was scientific and to the point but I was obliged to comment on Sam's article which was written two years later because of the twisted and trumped data he added to the original article .

I would like Sam to comment on my research, otherwise , I'm right and he is Trump !!!!'

No Trump !!!!

JEHOVAH GOD made a "blood" covenant with Abraham, which renewed with Issac and then Jacob, whose name was changed by GOD. That "blood" covenant is an "everlasting" covenant, meaning it can never be broken. You can read it in Genesis Chapter 15 and Chapter 17. Issac was promised the "blessing" not Ishmael. The person writing this Article does not know JEHOVAH GOD's Holy Word.

Sorry, I'm a broad minded person living in the twenty first century, not a dumb isolationist who lives in a world of his invention and believes his own myths ! I believe in human equality and absence of racial or religious superiority. If God , purportedly, gave a promise of excellence or superiority to a certain race , it means bigotry and injustice ! I think that the problem between Nazism and the Jews had its roots from that so called "covenant" and that the Jews are God's chosen people . While the Nazis believe that the Aryan race is the master race who got it all to rule, conquer and enslave the rest of the world. But the Bible say something different and most of the Nazi's propaganda target Aryans who believe in this Bible and are faced with such contradictions between the Nazi teachings and the Bible teachings. So the Nazi's solution for the mess is to eradicate the other people who claim their supremacy as God's chosen people, I.e the Jews , so one master race remains !
The sign of the covenant as mentioned in the Turah or OT is male circumcision, a tradition abolished in Christianity by Paul to lure Greeks known for their despise of such Jewish tradition . into Christianity ! That means that non- circumcized Christians (the majority of Christians) are outcasts and are not included in such covenant ! Even, killing a supreme being like Jesus Christ and a pious prophet like Johnn the Paptist were not enough for God's wrath against the people who committed such abominable crimes and braking that covenant which was definitely manifested by destruction of the temple by the Romans in 70 AD and the end of the Jewish rule in the holy land for nearly two millennia ! So, where was the holy word for two long milenia and a devastating Holocaust short of complete extermination ?

"and are still under spiritual slavery today" lol jews were subservient to dogs for millennia

Being an Arab and a Muslim do not make me automatically anti- Jew ! Jews are our cousins and many of them are no- Trump's. I have no grudges against Jew and I can never support hate speech against the , otherwise I would be another Trump.

"Advent" is the correct term. There are no "Revelations" in the Religion of Murder, Islam. When one reads the Koran it becomes clear that this is not a religion, but an excuse to murder, rape, mass theft, and conquest. As a non-religious person, it is easy for me to find fault with all the major religions. But Islam is the only major "religion" i have studied that qualifies for mass suppression, if not eradication due to its explicitly evil nature.

Very nice and thoughtful actually ! Why do you care to call such 'bloody crap' (according to you and what you ascribedbto it) a "Major Religion" ? Just call it a "cult" . I was referring and talking to the author of the article, not you!


Isn't this cute? Hameed felt so threatened by science that he had to lash out multiple times, spewing hate under the guise of "informing" the rest of us. I'm just going to leave this one word here: ADVENT.

I hope your jimmies aren't too rustled.

On the article: This was an extremely interesting piece that drew attention to the environment surrounding the rise of islam. It will be equally interesting to see environment surrounding its imminent collapse. ISIS is hard at work destroying history because it is threatened by the truth in it. Is that what rubs you the wrong way so badly? Perhaps you may find like-minded folks in ISIS. Good luck on your search, friend.

"Trumping, Trumping, Trumping" which means if you do not beliveve my myths and premonitions you are against me !!!! If you are not with me, you are against me .....I may have small hands , but huge genitals that can handle three wives (one current and two ex) and call this Christian (Mark 10:9 (Therefore what God has joined together, let no one separate)) , (Matthew 19:8 (Jesus replied, "Moses permitted you to divorce your wives because your hearts were hard. But it was not this way from the beginning.))!!!!! That is "Trumping" !!!!! Any Muslim is a potential terrorist , Trumping !!!!! Mexican Immigrants should be walled off because they are drug dealers, rapists and criminals, Trumping !!!!!

Well, would you discuss the scientific falacies of such article without Trumping if you can !!!!!
Here is the same article with the same data in the same website but without hideous fallacies as this article !!!!!!


Do not befriend a terrorist !!!!!

No Trumping !!!!

Look, you lunatic, only an idiot fanatical Muslim would think that just because Trump is American he is Christian. That is what happens in countries where you kill everyone who isn't your religion. That is not what happens here. Trump is no more Christian than I am a hippopotamus. Stay off the crazy Islamic talk TV, and your IQ may eventually reach normal.

On the other hand, though, all the dancing boys in Islamic countries must be perfectly fine, since you are all Muslim, right? You would throw acid in the face of a woman for showing more skin than you like, and you would push your sister into a burning building if she ran out without wearing a head-covering, but men having sex with little boys is just fine by you. Got it.

To write as you do, pretending that all the world shares your faith and that everyone is meant to take your beliefs as certain and verified truths is awfully arrogant. Next time, please go show your erudition elsewhere where readers are all muslims.

This is really HILLARIous how a wiki-zombie accuses academics, who in his imagination represent Trump, of their incompetence. However science has to do with something more than Wikipedia and political engagement. First of all, I would advice the wiki-zombie to study Arabic and read Abu Musa Al-Hariri's "Priest and Prophet: story on origin of Islam" (قس ونبی - بحث فی نشأة الاسلام - ابو موسی الحریری) where one can find the summary about the cross-religious dialogue/connections between X-nity and S-lam. Learn about Waraka Bin Nawfal. Second, if one really likes to investigate, start with the Prophet MHMD's genealogical tree, and pay special attention to the connection of MHMD's great-great-grandfather Qusay Bin Kilab Bin Murra to the Tubba Abu Karib As'ad Kamil, Al-Kahinan, Hulail Bin Hushbiya and the shrine of Ka'aba. Third, learn some linguistics and the evolution of the Arab script, horouf and harakat. Fourth, I recommend to read Kees Versteegh's "Arabic in the Pre-Islamic Period". And finally remember A. Schopenhauer's “Clio, the muse of history, is as thoroughly infected with lies as a street whore with syphilis”.

Islam : 1400 years of the most misogynistic hate filled political ideology on the face of the earth - ever.

Your Quran claims that the God of Islam is the same God as the God of Christians and Jews Sura 29-46. The Gospels written by eye witnesses to Jesus' teaching and miracles state that Jesus said He is one in being with the Father, that "No one's comes to the Father but by Me." and that "You have seen me, you have seen the Father". When Jesus asks Peter "Who do you say that I am?", Peter responds with "You are the Messiah, he Son of the living God" and Jesus accepts that answer. Your Quran, which is Muhammad's claim of revelations he supposedly received from the allah god via the angel Jibril (no witnesses)(in a cave), states that he, the allah god, has no sons and that Jesus was only a prophet and that Jesus did not die on the cross. Your allah god may not have any sons, but the statements on Jesus divinity and death on the cross are lies against Jesus' words in the Gospels, written by eye witnesses at least 600 years before the Quran was compiled. Jesus tells the Jews that Satan is the father of all lies (Gospel John 8:44). Using Jesus words in the Gospels, I come to the logical conclusion that the allah god of Islam and Muhammad is Satan. I urge you to read the Gospels and come to true faith in Jesus Christ, the Son of God, One in Being with the Father, and the only way to the Father, and leave Islam and save your eternal soul. Ever wonder why Muhammad called for death for those who leave Islam? Death for apostasy is the glue that holds people in your false religion. Sura 2-193 calls for fighting untill Islam is supreme. This is a recipe for eternal fighting among mankind. Satan should be pleased with his religion.

That's obvious because many Arabs were Cristian before Islam. The language belong to Arabs either they were Cristian or Muslim. When Islam came the Quran came in Arabic the language of the people first received Islam and the gods messenger (Mohammad) P. Was Arabic

argument over this article isn't worth the minutes spend figuring out what to say then typing it..it's an interesting article..i have my opinions too but they aren't going to change yours..normally i don't reply to articles but i really have to know why it's so worthwhile to argue?

You may be right ! But I'm a truth seeker and I do not like people insinuating ideas into my mind and presenting their personal views and premonitions as facts after warping them in some scientific form, like poison in candy !!!!!!
If Galileo did not succumb to the threats of the church to denounce his scientific discoveries about the earth and universe or he will be excommunicated and burnt at the stake; the world would have saved about a century of development and scientific enlightenment!
Thank you for your advice !

Galileo wasn't threatened with being burnt at the stake. Galileo was an asshole who had, at the time, every appearance of a crackpot. He wanted to prove that the tides were an effect of the sun, not the moon, and his heliocentric theory was what was required for that to be true. At the time that he was pushing his theory, there were accurate mathematical models based on an earth-centered solar system. The math did not even exist until Newton to provide the predictions that the prior mathematical models had been doing for centuries. In the mind of the scientists of the age, the science was settled. Galileo STILL didn't get in trouble for heliocentrism, in fact. He got in trouble for being an asshole. He wrote the world's nastiest ad hominem attacks. When his friend--his actual friend--became pope, his friend asked that the various scholars please not fight so nastily because it was making the Catholic church look bad during a time of crisis, the beginning of the Reformation. Galileo promised to be polite, and then he went off and published a perfect screed in which he had a fake dialogue with characters including the pope that made the pope look as stupid as he possibly could. THAT is what got him in trouble. The papacy didn't actually care much about how the universe was structured. The pope cared that one of his churchmen was publishing a pamphlet that portrayed him as an idiot.

But of course, you'd have to learn about actual history to know anything about that.

The irony was that Galileo was right about the thing he didn't care that much about--heliocentricism--and dead wrong about the tides being controlled by the sun. Even funnier, though, was that Newton proved both points.

I hope these artifacts will not be destroyed, because they are pre islam

Geez. YES, the Quran does mention Jews and Christians in detail. And the hadiths that go along with it go into much more detail. Of course, if you actually READ the Quran, you also couldn't say nonsensical things about it not sentencing unbelievers to subjugation or death...

It IS interesting, however, that an Arabic alphabet already existed and so Arabic could be written at the time of Mohammed. That means that the surahs could have been written down almost immediately instead of committed to memory. I guess it shows that Arab tribal culture was illiterate rather than aliterate at the time. The same was true of the old Norse epics--they possessed a form of writing but really didn't use it for centuries. Not sure what to make of that other than the fact that neither society had much use for administration at the time.

Thanks for removing today's comments by Hameed. Had prepared a reply but when it came time to pos,t the comment had been removed

The Celts had writting but they didn’t used until the 2nd and 3rd century CE.  Before that everything was commited to memory.  To become a Druid or a Bard one had to have brain.

Si vis pacem, para bellum

Qur'anic Iesa Is Radically Different from Christ,
Qur'anic Isa was revered by both Yahud & NAsara. Qur'an 4:171 People of Book(Jews+Christians) don't exaggerate, Isa son of Marium, he was only a Messenger http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.arberry/4:171

Some evidences of Christ and prophet Isa of the Quran being two different personalities.
"Who Was Jesus?: Conspiracy in Jerusalem" by Kamal S. Salibi, http://goo.gl/zzcAJk
Quran is clear Isa AS was a Makki prophet whose mother move from Makkah to an eastern site for giving him birth see
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ مَرْيَمَ إِذِ انتَبَذَتْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا مَكَانًا شَرْقِيًّا ﴿١٦﴾
And mention in the Book Mary when she withdrew from her people to an eastern place, (16) Chapter 19 Maryam Verse16.
The place became well known later and has been mentined
وَجَعَلْنَا ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَأُمَّهُ آيَةً وَآوَيْنَاهُمَا إِلَىٰ رَبْوَةٍ ذَاتِ قَرَارٍ وَمَعِينٍ ﴿٥٠﴾ and We made Mary's son, and his mother, to be a sign, and gave them refuge towards Rabwah, where was a hollow and a spring: (50) Chapter 23 Al-Mu'minun.
Take a look at places just east of Makkah you will find many place names like Rabwa, Rabwah etc

My village is older than the entire Muslim religion, predating the birth of Muhamid (I don't care if that's spelling wrong).

Makes sense that Arabic stems from Christians, settling in the areas of the crusade.

The lord’s ANGLE speaks again. So your village is older then the birth of the prophet Mohammed. Unlike yourself I will show due respect for others beliefs by insuring the correct spelling.

Christian folks don’t seem to understand that one of the reasons so many people world wide has a ‘thing’ about Christians is for the most part you folks over the centuries have shown complete disregard, no respect, no understanding for the other beliefs world wide.

Anyways, back to your village being so old. Just exactly what is it that you are trying to imply? Perhaps that with the passage of time there has been to much inbreeding which has reduced your fellow villagers over all intelligence?

Again as with any good Christian you are rewritting rewitting history. Those of Arabic speaking cultures have been living in the ‘Levant’ for thousands of years. It is the crusaders who invaded and conquered this area. Taking from the locals their land. Acting like ‘barbarians’ Imposing ‘their’ will. What was the first thing dune by these crusaders once they conquered the Holy City of Jerusalem. Putting everyone and everything to the sword. Creating a ‘blood sacrifice’ all in the name of their Lord and Savior.

Such nice people, no!

Shabda's picture

Both were born in India, long before they ever journeyed to Ur. In India they predate Judaism by thousands of years however. Brahma and Saraswati = Abraham and Sarah. India colonized the world long before any other cultures did. The Vatican (formerly Vatika) is a Shiva Lingam. Hindu culture existed for thousands of years before the first Sumerian city states were built. Indians predated the Aryans. I won’t even get started about Krishna vs. Christ. There is no such being as Jehova as the one member was talking about because Hebrews has no vowels. YHWH would be much closer, however, he is no God, he is the demiurge, a dualistic being, the same as Satan. No difference. These concepts predate all of the Abrahamic religions and are not only firmly rooted in Indian culture, but that culture spread into Aryan culture in Persia, which is where the root of Judaism came from via the Zoroastrians that conquered Jerusalem and brought the inhabitants home with them for many generations. The various dynasties in Persia would never simply conquer a group or a culture, they would then work that culture into their own culture. Another thing that was first done by Indians. The point is that the Hebrews were shown a benefit if they adopted some of the concepts of Zoroastrianism, and they did exactly that. Now, concerning all of the various religious intolerance that is in this thread, it is time to grow up and let it go. Islam exists, and it was actually responsible for a HUGE amount of learning and scientific knowledge that did not exist before its golden age. Europe was centuries behind the Islamic world. Anyone can have any opinion they want about a religion, but when you start calling it and excuse to murder and rape, you have gone completely off the deep end, and there is NO excuse for that! If you have THAT bad of a reaction to it, perhaps you would be better served by seeking out a professional psychologist that you could go to to work out those issues that plague you. Christianity has never been a religion of peace, so pack up that double standard because it simply will not fly here! The history is by no means secret. Every religious grouping has dirty little secrets that they would rather not be spoken of, but this site is based on history, so the historical events will always be brought up regardless of any person’s religious views or opinions.

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Human Origins

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Figure 1. Geometric stone spheres. (Photo Credit: Martin Morrison, taken at Hunterian Museum, Glasgow)
Four hundred and twenty geometric stone spheres have been found in the vicinity of Neolithic stone circles in Northern Scotland, with 169 coming from Aberdeenshire alone. Outside Scotland, examples have been found in Ireland at Ballymena, and in England at Durham, Cumbria, Lowick and Bridlington.

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