Homer: From Oral Tradition to Canon
The Iliad and the Odyssey, two of the oldest narratives to withstand time. Accredited to Homer, these poetic verses have preserved memories from an era gone by, an age of heroes. Although, it beckons the question, “Through what means?” That is, how did we get the versions we know and enjoy today?
Following the turmoil that ravaged the Eastern Mediterranean world during what academics call the Late Bronze Age (hereafter, LBA) period at approximately 1200 BCE, the known world would bring about a change like no other. In Greece, the Mycenaean palaces and outlying settlements began to be abandoned or destroyed and by 1050 BCE, all recognizable features of the Mycenaean culture vanished. In Anatolia, not only had Troy fallen but the Hittite empire collapsed and left little proof of it ever existing. Egypt was so badly weakened that it never again regained its former glory. The Near East fell into a Dark Age, marking the beginning of a new era, the Iron Age. However, all was not lost. With every passing comes a rebirth. Out of the ashes of the old arose new nations which would eventually define the Western World; nations that included Greece, Phrygia, the Neo-Hittites, Israel, etc.
The Greek Dark Age essentially wiped the Greeks off of the historical record until the 8th century BCE when they were active outside of the Greek mainland; that is in the Aegean / Ionian islands, Anatolia, Italy (Magna Gracia), Ischia, and Sicily. Prior to the disappearance of the Mycenaean Greeks in the LBA, writing was utilized in all of the Aegean to record inventories and transactions. The Mycenaean script is referred to as Linear B; an adaptation of the earlier Minoan Linear A. Linear A and B comprise hundreds of signs that represent syllabic, ideographic, and semantic values. To date, Linear B has been the only deciphered script (translated by Michael Ventris and John Chadwick between 1951 - 1953), providing insight into the more archaic form of Greek spoken by the Mycenaeans (Chadwick, 84).
This clay tablet with Linear B script, dated to 1450-1375 BC is Minoan and was found at Knossos by Arthur Evans. It records quantities of oil apparently offered to various deities. Source: Wikimedia
It would take centuries before the Greeks rediscovered writing. The earliest known and yet fragmentary Greek inscriptions have been dated to the 8th century BCE. It is generally believed that the Greek alphabet was adopted and adapted from the already present Phoenician alphabet, in Euboea (the second largest Greek island in the Aegean Sea) as archaeology seems to showcase that this region of Greece was one of the first to recover from the preceding Greek Dark Age (Burkert, 26). This adaptation of the Semitic script was the first alphabetic writing system that was not abjad (or consonant only); introducing vowels. It is this modified script that spread across the entire Mediterranean, to be used by the Phrygians, Lydians, Lycians, Carians, among other Anatolian nations in the East and by the Etruscans residing in Italy to the West. This modified script would later inspire the Latin character set utilized by the Romans.
Returning to Homer, scholars continue to debate his existence. He has been dated to the Greek Archaic Period in the 8th BCE. Whether he existed or not is not the focus of this article, but one thing is for certain, as is evident by his work, he was a poet; a traveling bard who sang these verses, most likely to the tune of a lyre. It was through poetic verse and the use of repetition that the poet was able to maintain an almost consistent and fluid narrative in every performance. The oral composition of the Iliad and Odyssey would predate Homer as its themes and events would have been passed from generation to generation until we arrive to Homer. Through archaeology, historians are able to discern assorted Mycenaean activities over a span of time during the LBA, in some cases in a clash with the location of Ilium (i.e. Troy) and would eventually inspire the Iliad. These warlike activities are recorded in the Hittite records excavated from the Hittite capital of Hattusa, near the modern town of Boğazkale (formerly, Boğazköy). These records also contain some of the toponyms and names found in the epic (i.e. Achaea, Atreus, Alexandros, etc.). The events would make such an impression in this region that in the southern coastal regions of Anatolia, a Cilician leader (ca. 8th century BCE) of the later Iron Age would trace his lineage to the seer, Mopsus (Payne, 42-44).