Mark the Evangelist symbol is the winged lion, the Lion of Saint Mark. Canvas painting, circa 1516.

The origins of the ancient Coptic Church of Egypt

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The Coptic Church of Egypt is the earliest Christian church in the world, going back to around 42 AD. According to Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, as well as Coptic traditions, Saint Mark the evangelist, who wrote the earliest of the four New Testament gospels, was the founder and first bishop of the Church of Alexandria, even before the Church of Rome was established. In his landmark History of the Church , written in Greek about the year 310, Eusebius writes: "Now, they say that this Mark was the first to have set out to Egypt to preach the gospel, which he had already written down, and the first to have organized churches in Alexandria itself " (Eusebius, HE 2.16.1). This information is supplemented by Eusebius’s Chronicle, where he places Mark’s arrival in Alexandria in the third year of Claudius’ reign, which would be AD 41-42 or 43-44. This is no more than ten years after the date fixed for the death of Jesus, traditionally held to be in AD 33.  

Meanwhile, the traditional Egyptian account regarding the history of the early Coptic Church agrees with Eusebius on Mark’s role as the founder of the Alexandrian Church. However, Sawirus ibn al-Muqaffa’ gives a slightly later date to Mark’s arrival in Alexandria: "In the fifteenth year after the Ascension of Christ ( c. AD 48), the holy Peter sent Saint Mark, the father and evangelist, to the city of Alexandria, to announce the good tiding (Gospel) there ".1 The History of the Patriarchs attributed to Sawirus ibn al-Muqaffa is actually a multi-generational compendium of Egyptian church history that relies on several early Coptic sources, and was redacted and translated into Arabic in the eleventh century.

More information on Mark’s life in Egypt is found in the Coptic account recorded by Sawirus, which is believed to have come from an earlier source. This source, known as the Acts of Mark, gives more details about Mark’s activities in Egypt, including the account of the evangelist’s martyrdom in Alexandria. The Acts of Mark has collected some early oral traditions and set them within a larger narrative, describing the details of Mark’s mission and martyrdom in Alexandria. While the exact date of composition for the Acts of Mark is uncertain, these traditions are traceable at least to the late fourth or early fifth century. The Acts incorporates two streams of tradition within a single narrative. The first stream concerns Mark’s founding of the church in Alexandria. The second stream concerns Mark’s martyrdom, and provides an explanation for the establishment of his martyr church on the outskirts of Alexandria.

Detail, painting of Mark the Evangelist

Detail, painting of Mark the Evangelist. Public Domain

The document was originally written in Greek and Coptic, and was rendered into several other languages. The main line of the story in the Acts of Mark goes like this: when the apostles were sent out in their missions, Mark received as his lot the country of Egypt and its surrounding territories. He went first to Cyrene, (in Libya) (a second version makes him a native of Cyrene) where he did a lot of work to convert many to the Christian faith. While in Cyrene, Mark received a vision that he should go to Alexandria.

He arrived in Alexandria the next day and came to a place called Mendion. As he was entering the gate of the city, the strap of his sandal broke, and Mark looked for a cobbler to fix it. As the cobbler was working on the sandal, he injured his left hand and cried out in pain, ‘God is one.’ Mark healed the cobbler’s hand in the name of Jesus. To show his gratitude, the cobbler invited Mark to his home for a meal. There Mark began to preach the gospel of Jesus, telling the man of the prophecies related to Christ. The cobbler said that he did not know of these writings, though he was familiar with the Iliad and the Odyssey and other things that Egyptians learned from childhood. The man was eventually converted, and he and his whole household were baptized, and many others besides. The cobbler’s name was Ananias (the other version has Anianus).  Eventually, some pagan ‘men of the city’, angered by these conversions, sought to kill Mark. The evangelist decided to leave Alexandria and go back to Pentapolis, in North Africa. However, before leaving he ordained for the church Ananias (Annianus) as bishop, along with three presbyters (Milaius, Sabinus, and Cerdo).

The Healing of Anianus by Cima da Conegliano

The Healing of Anianus by Cima da Conegliano ( Wikipedia)

Comments

Nice work, Mr Osman. I love those early church martyrdom accounts. They have that underlying format that shows how those first Christians needed specific assurance that heaven was still assisting the church even though things looked bleak during persecution. Saying that, it is often surprising when bones are analysed, how often the core of the tale could be true. 

Around AD 55 saints Thaddeus and Bartolommeo travelled to Armenia to spread Christianity. Saint Thomas was in India for the same purpose. In AD 301 Kingdom of Armenia declared Christianity as state religion, seventeen years before Roman Empire did so.

Maybe it's interesting for Ancient Origins to start a series on wether Jesus really ever existed. What is the evidence. And I mean REAL HARD EVIDENCE. And if he did exist once what kind of a man was he really.
My position is: the more miracles the less believable.

Here's an interesting lecture: Richard Carrier: Why Jesus Never Existed
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r5Xs2BzFs7c

This article isn't about Jesus. It's about the Coptic Church. The liturgical texts of which proved useful in translation of ancient Egyptian. There's very little evidence at the level you demand for William the Conqueror. Show me the bones of Julius Caesar. Everything we know about him is written down. It gets a bit boring when anti-religious people expect forensic levels of evidence because it's "religion". Confirmation Bias yet again. There would be no point in  such articles because unless people with opinions like yours agreed with it, you would ramble on endlessly in the comments about why it was rubbish.

The problem is that the period of time when the mythical jesus is supposed to have lived is extremely well documented by hundreds of scribes who recorded the existence of all the thinkers and doers of the time throughout the entire region...and not one line about this jesus from any of them. Very strange, considering how well this character was supposedly known. Contemporary historical analysis at the highest levels of academia cannot find this character.

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