Mysterious Map Emerges at the Dawn of the Egyptian Civilization and Depicts Antarctica Without Ice – Who Made it?

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On a chilly winter day in 1929, Halil Edhem, the Director of Turkey's National Museum, was hunched over his solitary task of classifying documents.  He pulled towards him a map drawn on Roe deer skin. As Halil opened the chart to its full dimensions (two feet by three feet wide or 60 X 90 cm) he was surprised by how much of the New World was depicted on a map which dated from 1513.

The document was the legacy of a pirate turned Turkish Admiral, Piri Reis ( circa 1470-1554). He was born in Gallipoli, a naval base on the Marmara Sea and was the nephew of Kemal Reis, a pirate who had reinvented himself as a Turkish Admiral adventurer who had made his name in naval warfare. At the time, the distinction between pirate and Admiral was more flexible than might be expected from looking back through a Hollywood lens. 

Map of the world by Ottoman admiral Piri Reis, drawn in 1513

Map of the world by Ottoman admiral Piri Reis, drawn in 1513. ( Public Domain )

Piri Reis sailed with his famous uncle from 1487 to 1493. During these voyages, he was introduced to the lucrative spoils of piracy. The fleet fought pirates and captured and plundered enemy ships. In 1495, Kemal Reis’ great skill in the art of battle earned him an invitation to join the Imperial Turkish Fleet. His nephew accompanied him to his new assignment. The pirates were transformed into respectable Admirals.

After Kemal was killed during a naval battle in 1502 Piri Reis turned his back on the seafaring life and began a second career as a map maker. A perfectionist - Piri Reis would not tolerate the slightest error in his drawings - he created his famous map in 1513 using older source maps; including charts captured from Christopher Columbus. The Turks had boarded one of Columbus’s ships before the crew had a chance to throw the charts into the sea; standard practice in a time when the contours of the planet remained veiled in mystery and maps held secrets that were invaluable to pirates, admirals, kings and queens.

‘Christopher Columbus on Santa Maria in 1492’ (1855) by Emanuel Leutze.

‘Christopher Columbus on Santa Maria in 1492’ (1855) by Emanuel Leutze. ( Public Domain )

A Columbus Controversy

The general public first learned of the existence of the Piri Reis map in the 27 February 1932 issue of the Illustrated London News . Entitled, “A Columbus Controversy: America – And Two Atlantic Charts”, the article noted that: “... Columbus got little further than the mouth of the Orinoco, in Venezuela, in his voyage along the coast of South America in 1498, so that the stretches of the South American coast given in the Piri Reis's chart must have been copied from other sources.”

In the July 23rd edition of the magazine Akcura Yusuf, President of the Turkish Historical Research Society, wrote a more detailed account. The author pointed out a significant fact: “...the map in our possession is a fragment. If the Other fragments had not been lost, we should have had in our possession a Turkish chart drawn in 1513 representing the Old and New Worlds together.”

U.S. Navy's Hydrographic Office.

An amateur scientist by the name of Captain Arlington Mallery made it his mission to determine the age of the source maps used by Piri Reis. So radical were Mallery's conclusions that he hesitated to reveal them. In August 1956, he finally decided to reveal his findings on a radio show sponsored by Georgetown University. He explained that in June 1954 he was working in the map room of the Library of Congress when his friend "... the Chief Engineer of the Hydrographic Office handed me a copy of a map which had been sent to him by a Turkish naval officer. He suggested that I examine it in the light of the information we already had on the ancient maps. After making an analysis of it, I took it back to him and requested that the Officer check both the latitude and longitude and the projection. When they asked why, I said, 'There is something in this map that no one is going to believe coming from me, and I don't know whether they will believe it coming from you.' That was the fact that Columbus had with him a map that showed accurately the Palmer Peninsula in the Antarctic continent.”

1753 world map by the French cartographer Philippe Buache

1753 world map by the French cartographer Philippe Buache. ( Public Domain )



The headline is misleading as the map in question is from the 16th century A.D.

So, you only read the headline, and not the rest of the article.
Got it.

I can readily understand why the headline and article itself could be confusing at first. The Piri Reis map is dated to 1513, but the contention of the article is that it must have been based on maps that were thousands of years older.
So where are those maps? My understanding is that Admiral Piri Reis spent much of his later life studying in the library of Constantinople (now Istanbul), and some of the contents of that library had been lost or destroyed during and after various conquests. Also, much of the library of Constantinople had been rescued from the library of Alexandria, probably the largest library in the ancient world with up to 1,000,000 volumes. Admiral Reis may have had access to ancient maps and other ancient information that we do not have today.
If in fact Admiral Reis had access to ancient maps, who made those ancient maps? Genesis 10 narrates the genealogy of the descendents of Noah, and v. 25 tells of a descendent through Shem named Peleg, "for in his days was the earth divided." Some believe the word "divided" can also be translated "mapped" or "surveyed." In Genesis 9:1 God had commanded Noah and his family to go forth and "replenish" (other translations, "fill") the earth. Could this have been the era in which expeditions went forth to explore and potentially colonize this post-Flood world? At the very least, we can be sure these people knew how to build a sea-worthy ship (the Ark). This might also explain why Antarctica might not have had an icecap in those early days after the Flood.
The Piri Reis map, like the Orantes Fineas map and the Mercator map that appear to be based on it, is in important piece of evidence. The hypothesis of a Biblical Flood may the best explanation of this and other evidence.

Tsurugi's picture

Reading is hard.

This is interesting, especially in light of an LA Times article I remember from when I was younger that claims Jewish Rabbis chose the year Adam is said to have left the Garden of Eden and became civilized to start the Jewish calendar. Perhaps that whole Enoch and the Watchers/educators thing isn't really as far fetched as they once thought.


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