The Library of Pergamum: A Contender for the Greatest Library of the Ancient World
Pergamum, Anatolia, now the modern Turkish town of Bergama, was one of the most important cities in the Hellenistic Greek age. It was culturally rich, with an extensive library at its heart. The city gained renown as an administrative center when it was ruled by King Eumenes II from the Attalid dynasty. It was under this king that Pergamum severed ties with Macedonia and made an alliance with the Roman Republic.
Drawing of ancient Pergamon (Pergamum). Source: Public Domain
One of the Key Libraries of the Ancient World
The city boasted a population of over 200,000 citizens. Culturally, it rivaled both Alexandria and Antioch with its many works of art, including sculptures and advanced architecture such as the Great Altar of Pergamum. It was also an important religious center, being mentioned in the New Testament as one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Around 133 BC, Pergamum was bequeathed to the Roman Republic, and in the Middle Ages it fell under the rule of the Ottoman empire.
Map of Pergamon’s Acropolis (1882), from Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabung zu Pergamon 1880-1881, University of Heidelberg. ( Public Domain )
Pergamum’s library was the center for all things cultural. The Greek writer Plutarch said that it had approximately 200,000 volumes. It came to be known as one of the most important libraries in the ancient world and was second only to the Library of Alexandria.
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According to the ancient chronicler Pliny the Elder, the Library of Pergamum became so famous that it was considered to be in “keen competition” with the Library of Alexandria. Both attempted to amass the most complete collection of texts, and they developed rival schools of thought and criticism. In fact, legend has it that Egypt’s Ptolemaic dynasty halted shipments of papyrus to Pergamum in hope of slowing the library’s growth. As a result, the city may have later become a leading site for parchment production. A distinguished citizen of Pergamum and wife of a town councilor, Flavia Melitene, was instrumental in supplying the library with many of its works. Notably, she presented a statue of the Roman Emperor Hadrian to the library as a gift.
Statue of Hadrian in military garb, Antalya, Turkey. (Andrew Kuchling/ CC BY 2.0 )
The Gift of Learning
Legend has it that Mark Anthony, ruler of the Macedonian empire at its height, later gave all 200,000 volumes within the library to Cleopatra as a wedding present. The volumes were destined for the Library of Alexandria - ending the recognition of the Library of Pergamum as one of the greatest of its time. It is possible that these volumes were destroyed in the fire at the Library of Alexandria, as the date in which it burned to the ground is unknown.
Some have posited that Julius Caesar burned the library in his first civil war in 48 BC. Some other suggested dates for the library’s destruction are: the attack of Aurelian in 270-275 AD, Pope Theophilius of Alexandria’s decree to destroy previous pagan knowledge in the name of god in 391 AD, or the Muslim Conquest of Egypt c. 642 AD.
If the library was destroyed by Julius Caesar, it supports the story that Mark Anthony gave the contents of the Library of Pergamum to Cleopatra to refill the once great Library of Alexandria. Unfortunately, there is no known catalog of the Library of Pergamum, which makes it impossible to know the true scope of the collection.
Ruins of part of the building which housed the Library of Pergamum. ( dkiel.com)
The Library’s Architecture
Built by Eumenes II at the height of Pergamum’s fame, it was situated on the northern end of the acropolis. It is the only Greek library for which archaeologists today have secure evidence, therefore, it is the only library from the ancient world that we can draw conclusions from regarding its architecture and the equipment used within it. It is now largely accepted that the layout looked approximately like this: a monumental room with a large statue of a deity as its focal point situated opposite the main entrance. Typically, this was a statue of Athena. The main room had an exedra, a side-room or portico, forming the base of the bookshelves.
Statue of Athena Parthenos from the Library of Pergamum with the temple of Zeus Sosipolis from Magnesia on the Maeander in the background. Pergamon Museum, Berlin. (Marcus Cyron/ CC BY SA 2.0 )