Saqsayhuaman, Peru

Newgrange and Saqsayhuaman: Separated at Birth in 3050 BC?

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Two of the Boyne Valley’s most impressive passage mounds — Knowth and adjacent Newgrange — may have functioned together as part of an important initiation ritual, one that survived over three thousand years. And these sites may have their twins in the Andes, in the form of megalithic Saqsayhuaman, and its smaller and equally mysterious child, the carved butte called Q’uenqo.  The clue lies in their respective astronomical alignments.


Although Knowth receives less attention than its more famous neighbor, it is replete with mysteries.

Knowth, River Boyne valley, Ireland.

Knowth, River Boyne valley, Ireland. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Many of its carved kerbstones are astronomically significant, while its little-studied western passage — which faces the Equinox sunset — abruptly changes direction at an angle of 19.5º to meet a second passage aligned to the Equinox sunrise. This unusual choice of angle may be a reference to the point of contact between two of nature’s prime building blocks, the sphere and the tetrahedron: where the points of a tetrahedron touch the surface of its circumscribing sphere, the resulting angle is 19.47º. On a practical, observable level, this angle, as a latitude, marks the most active hotspots of energy manifestation on the surface of Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Uranus, and the Sun.

The unusual deviation angle. Knowth, west passage.

The unusual deviation angle. Knowth, west passage.

It was not unusual for sacred sites to be infused with all manner of information, for they served many overlapping functions, one being a teaching device. Here, it is Knowth’s persistent referencing of Venus that is of interest. Its eastern passage marks the heliacal rising of Venus on both equinoxes as well as the summer solstice. On the winter solstice, however, both Venus and the rising Sun move slightly to the south, where they are observed inside Newgrange’s megalithic passage; a carved lintel above the mound’s light box even references Venus’s eight-year cycle.

Newgrange, County Meath, Ireland.

Newgrange, County Meath, Ireland. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

These alignments occurred in the year 3051 BC, the alleged median date for the construction of both monuments. Had you been alive then you would have observed Venus rising from Knowth on the autumn equinox, and exactly three months later, from Newgrange on the winter solstice, along with the sunrise. And this is where the connection to a most important ancient ritual comes in.

Venus, like Sirius, was the star to whose light initiates were resurrected in Egypt in order to be considered ‘sons of God’; the same ritual in various Mysteries schools from China and India, to Polynesia and the Mediterranean, was often regarded as a ‘living resurrection’, since the candidates experienced a figurative rather than literal death, during a controlled out-of-body experience which allowed the soul temporary access to the Otherworld. This initiation often consisted of a two-part process performed at the equinox and the solstice.

Living Resurrection

The later Jerusalem Church of early Christianity held the same position on Venus and the living resurrection. And perhaps so did Andean priests at the megalithic structure of Saqsayhuaman and the adjacent chamber of Q’uenqo, both of which behave very similarly to Knowth and Newgrange: Q’uenqo is aligned to the heliacal rising of Venus on the autumn equinox, while three months later, Venus and the sun rise along the axis of Saqsayhuaman at the winter solstice. What is even more curious is that the alignments, as in Ireland, coincide at 3150 BC.



Long before the appearance of the Inka, Q’uenqo was known locally as the entrance into the Otherworld, and the manner in which its passage was uniquely carved in the shape of an ‘S’ out of one massive andesite boulder (which is the size of three houses) attests to the living resurrection having taken place there: the candidate entered in the west at sunset on the equinox, lay inside the womb-like chamber for several days, and re-emerged in the east to face Venus just before dawn to be declared a god-man, or woman.

Q'uenqo. Entrance to the Otherworld.

Q'uenqo. Entrance to the Otherworld.

Ancient Rituals

The procedure is identical at Knowth, and ongoing archaeological digs inside its passages are still looking for the portal connecting the two. What is revealing is Knowth’s seventeen attendant chambered mounds, which form a numerical coincidence with another unique man-made cave where the same ritual was practiced in Egypt: the Osirion at Abydos. It too features seventeen side chambers.

Knowth and the Osirion both feature seventeen attendant chambers.

Knowth and the Osirion both feature seventeen attendant chambers.


I have also noted many astronomical links to Venus.....The overlap in dates is even more intriguing.

I wonder...have you looked at Edo Castle in Japan for alignments to Venus?

I found the same astronomical values for predicting eclipses in the polygonal walls at Edo Castle, Delphi in Greece and Saksaywaman in Peru....Polygonal walls in Japan are very rare.

The link to Venus would fully explain the 40 degree alignment I am routinely seeing as a secondary alignment angle in polygonal walls.

This is from

One Venus cycle is 37960 days, or 40 Earth years. 104 x 365 = 37960 (one and a half Zodiac degrees.)

Venus transits the Sun every 121.5 years and again in 8 years, then repeats in 121.5 years.

The conjunction of Mercury, Venus, Earth and the Sun is known as the Shekina; Venus and Mercury become one very bright star as seen from Earth. This occurs every 480 years. 12 x 40 Venus cycles = 480. One of these conjunctions occurred in 4 BCE

Dr. Derek Cunningham
Author The Long Journey (400,000 Years of Stone Age Science)

Freddy Silva's picture

Hello Derek. I've been following your excellent work on Saqsayhuaman with great interest, and mention it on my tours. Very insightful. I've not taken this further with regard to Japan. The focus of my inquiry relates to the use of certain sacred places for the ritual of living resurrection, seeing if that pattern repeats at sites we know little about, and adapting the same principles, on a hunch, to see whether the pattern fits. It does in this case. I will be looking at the Temple of Ise in Japan, given the obvious association with Isis and a similar resurrection myth to that of Osiris. Delphi, of course, is also such a temple.
However, these temples were often multi-disciplinary, so a number of disciplines can overlap (which is why so many people argue over the same topic :-). 
 Just putting this material out there so that others might advance the concept. many cases there might even be solstice alignments, planetary alignments, mathematical text, and other astronomical observations all overlapping.

That is why I concentrate in my work only on mathematical terms for calculating time and predicting eclipses. The number 40 appears in numerous texts, and the other secondary values might easily related to Mars, Mercury, and Jupiter.

Dr. Derek Cunningham
Author The Long Journey (400,000 Years of Stone Age Science)

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