A woolly mammoth meets a meteor strike

The Carolina Bays and the Destruction of North America

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This is an ancient and enduring mystery from pre-historic North America, involving geology, astronomy, climatology and zoology. And unravelling this mystery will tell us a great deal about our world, its history, its climate, its vulnerability, and possibly even our future.

This mystery centers on the enigmatic Carolina Bays, which are scattered over not just Carolina, but also Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, Kansas and Nebraska. In fact, the latest population survey suggests there are more than 500,000 bays dotted across these states. And readers might be excused for asking "Carolina what?" because they are not exactly well known, despite their pivotal role in the formation of North America. And the reason for these bays flying under the popular education and media radar is that even to this day nobody seems to know what they are.

But I do....

Carolina Bays are elliptical depressions in sandy, sedimentary lands, which range from 50 meters (164 feet) to seven kilometers (four miles) across. And the strange thing about them is that they all have the same outline and they all face in the same direction. But what could make surface features all point in the same direction?

It was proposed by Prof Kaczorowski that they were wind-formed, over hundreds or thousands of years. But the equivalent parallel wind-formed lakes in Alaska are misshapen and all lie on low boggy ground. The Carolina Bays are all perfect clones of each other, and are spread across low and higher ground.

Fig 1. A false color image of the Carolina Bays using LIDAR height measuring technology. The Carolina Bays are all uniform in shape, and all line up in the same direction.

Fig 1. A false color image of the Carolina Bays using LIDAR height measuring technology. The Carolina Bays are all uniform in shape, and all line up in the same direction.  (Image 10 km x 7 km.) Image courtesy: North Carolina Department of Transport, LIDAR Flood Mapping Project.

But why anyone would suggest that these enigmatic Carolina Bays were wind formed is perplexing, because these bays have one other very peculiar but telling property - they all point towards the same source location. There are populations of bays in many states, as has already been explained, but all of these different populations point in different directions. And if we trace their various orientations we find that the vast majority of these Bay populations all point to and triangulate upon the center of the Great Lakes region.

In reality, they all point to the west of the Great Lakes region. But in a peculiar fit of academic ineptitude, nobody bothered to adjust this western focus-point for Coriolis effects - the apparent force that bends the flight of projectiles to the right in the northern hemisphere. Coriolis is caused by the spin of the Earth and it effects everything from the flight of military shells to the spiraling motion of hurricanes, which always spin anti-clockwise in the northern hemisphere. This gaping chasm in the study of the Carolina Bays was not addressed until about 2010, when Michael Davias recalculated the bay orientations taking into account not only the Coriolis angle-change, but also making a further allowance for the impact drift-angle. Having done so, it would appear that all of the many Bay populations point at the center of the Great Lakes.

Fig 2. The different populations of Bays all have different orientations. But it we extend those orientations, most of them focus on the center of the Great Lakes.

Fig 2. The different populations of Bays all have different orientations. But it we extend those orientations, most of them focus on the center of the Great Lakes.

The Younger Dryas impact

This is a very interesting result, for the inescapable conclusion is that these enigmatic bays are likely to be elliptical impact crater-depressions. Not depressions created directly by an incoming comet or meteor shower, as many of the earlier researchers of the Carolina Bays claimed, but depressions formed by much slower secondary projectiles displaced from a primary impact source in the Great Lakes. And the symmetric flanking arrangement, of secondary debris and projectiles on either side of a primary impact, is a known type of crater formation called the low trajectory butterfly impact.

In this particular case, the primary meteor must have entered the atmosphere from the northeast at a low angle and struck the center of the Great Lakes region, resulting in two wings of debris being lifted up either side of the primary impact. But not so much material was displaced to the front or rear of the primary crater, which is why this type of impact is known as a butterfly formation.


The kinetic energy would've invariably shattered and then melted any ice, turny the slushy blobs of into lukewarm water on impact -- basically lobbing huge water balloons into S. Carolina. It would be pretty easy to scale, simulate and film in slow motion. Be fun, too.

Possible. I would like to see.

Personally I don't think it would turn to water, because the latent heat of melting and then vaporisation of ice is very large. Larger than most solids-liquids. I think it would exceed the capability of the impact. In addition, ice is quite a good insulator, so the heat would not have time to spread effectively, in the instant of impact.

But if you have a spare Cray computer, and a fat Climate Change grant, we could always try. Ah, sorry, I forgot, those are only for CO2 research. ;-)


This is Ralph's second climate article, which deals with as yet unknown mechanism for Ice Age modulation. The Ice Age article is interesting, because it strongly suggests that CO2 is not the primary feedback-warming agent for our climate.

The real modulator of earth temperature and climate is albedo, not CO2. And if this is true then Western governments are wasting something like $100 to $200 billion a year of our money on a non-problem. Please remember that there has ben no Global Warming for 18 years.


And your explanation for consistent record global average temperatures year after year is...?

>>consistent record global average temperatures.

Because we are at the top of the PDO and AMO oceanic cycles. These are 60 - 70 year cycles and were at a:

max in the 30s (hot)
min in the 70s (cold)
max in the 00s (hot)

And now they are cooling again. The 30s were as hot as now. You also have to remember that the temperature record has been adjusted to hell and back. There have been 20 or more adjustments to the record, and all of them made the apparent temperature record warmer in recent years. That is why it is now known as the tamperature record, in the trade.



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