Bones found in Magnificent Amphipolis Tomb belong to Five People

Bones found in Magnificent Amphipolis Tomb belong to Five People, Ministry Announced

(Read the article on one page)

The Greek Ministry of Culture has announced the long-awaited results of the analysis on the bones found inside the 4 th century BC tomb uncovered in Amphipolis in northern Greece, and the news is quite unexpected – the bones belong to not one, but five individuals, pointing to the likelihood that it is a family tomb.

The tomb is located within Kasta Hill in what was once the ancient city of Amphipolis, conquered by Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, in 357 BC. Experts have known about the existence of the burial mound in Amphipolis, located about 100km northeast of Thessaloniki, since the 1960s, but work only began in earnest there in 2012, when archaeologists discovered that Kasta Hill had been surrounded by a nearly 500-meter wall made from marble. And only in the last few months did they discover the incredible chambers decorated with marble sphinxes and caryatids, an intricate mosaic floor, and a limestone sarcophagus containing hundreds of bone fragments.

Amphipolis Tomb Sketch

Amphipolis Tomb by Greektoys.org (update) on Sketchfab.

According to the Ministry’s Press Release , archaeologists recovered a total of 550 bone fragments, both crushed and intact, including a skull in good condition.  After a meticulous process of piecing the fragments together, scientists identified 157 complete bones.

Following the macroscopic study of bone material, which was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team from the Universities of Aristotle and Democritus, researchers were able to determine that the minimum number of individuals is five – a woman aged around 60 years, two men aged 35-45 years, a newborn infant, and the cremated remains of another individual of unknown age and gender.  In addition, they found a number of animal bones, most likely belonging to a horse.

Person 1: Female, approximately 60 years

Scientists were able to identify person 1 as female based on the pelvic bones, the bones of the skull, the mandible, and the morphological features of the bones, while age was determined based on the loss of posterior teeth, degenerative lesions, particularly in the spine, and the presence of metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis and frontal hyperostosis.  Her height is estimated at 157cm.

Most of the bones found can be attributed to the female, and they were located approximately 1 meter above the floor of the cist.

Bones belonging to the 60-year-old female.

Bones belonging to the 60-year-old female in the Amphipolis tomb. Credit: Ministry of Culture

Persons 2 and 3: Two men, 35 to 45 years

Two of the individuals identified are known to have been men, one around 35 years of age, and the other closer to 45 years of age. The younger of the two men, whose height is estimated at 168cm, bears traces of cut marks on the left upper thoracic spine, two sides and cervical vertebra. His injuries are consistent with violent injury caused by a sharp instrument, such as a knife, which are known to have caused his death since no healing indications could be distinguished.

The slightly older man, whose bones were found higher than the first man, measures around 162cm in height and has evidence of a fully healed fracture in his right radius, close to the right wrist. Both men show degenerative osteoarthritis and spondylitis.

Cut marks were found in multiple places in the bones of person 2.

Cut marks were found in multiple places in the bones of person 2 in the Amphipolis tomb. Credit: Ministry of Culture

Person 4: Newborn infant

The fourth individual identified was a newborn infant, whose sex could not be determined.  The determination of age was made based on the length and width of the left humerus and left mandible.

Bones found belonging to newborn infant.

Bones found in the Amphipolis tomb belonging to newborn infant. Credit: Ministry of Culture

Person 5: Cremated individual of unknown age and sex

The fifth person is represented by only a few burnt fragments. While age and sex cannot be determined, the bones are believed to belong to an adult individual.

Person 5 bones that have undergone the influence of high temperature, after burning.

Person 5 bones (Amphipolis tomb) that have undergone the influence of high temperature, after burning. Credit: Ministry of Culture

The scientific team will continue to carry out in-depth studies of the bones, including DNA analysis, to obtain more detailed information about the individuals including their diet, their affinity and place of origin, whether they grew up in Amphipolis or had moved from elsewhere, when they were buried/cremated, and whether the individuals are related to each other. The hope is that the results will enable the researchers to piece together the social and historical context and finally determine the identity of the individuals buried inside this incredibly important funerary monument.

Featured image: Marble sphinx and limestone sarcophagus found at Amphipolis. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture

Comments

scotdeerie's picture

I'm new to following this article and I have a question: was it common for there to be no identification on or around the tomb itself?  Are all tombs mystery tombs from this time period or was identification put on paper or fabric that disintegrated over time thereby obscuring the identity?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At least 5!

Sounds like a family group. Mother, 2 sons, grandchild and anonymous 5th cremated, maybe the mother of the infant? Though the cremated fragments could belong to the main female's husband, died away and cremated for traveling the body remains back to the family crypt.

I await more information eagerly! This is a fantastic find.

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Human Origins

Thinking Man? By Moncloa
Homo Sapiens represents the last of a long line of hominin races that once consisted of five different species spanning four continents. Today, we are the last humans, that is, the last of the genus Homo. Our closest living relatives are chimpanzees and gorillas. We, however, stand out in many ways from them. We have unparalleled capacities for abstract thought, language skills, and social cohesion.

Ancient Places

Sculpture of a head from 950-1150 AD found at Building Y in the Tajin Chico section. On display at the Tajin site museum, Veracruz state, Mexico
El Tajin is a Mesoamerican archaeological site located in the North of the state of Veracruz, near the Gulf Coast of Mexico. The city, one of the most flourishing of the Classic and early Post-classic period, was only rediscovered in 1785, immediately capturing the imagination of European travelers with its imposing jungle-covered ruins and unusual architecture.

Opinion

Sculpture of a head from 950-1150 AD found at Building Y in the Tajin Chico section. On display at the Tajin site museum, Veracruz state, Mexico
El Tajin is a Mesoamerican archaeological site located in the North of the state of Veracruz, near the Gulf Coast of Mexico. The city, one of the most flourishing of the Classic and early Post-classic period, was only rediscovered in 1785, immediately capturing the imagination of European travelers with its imposing jungle-covered ruins and unusual architecture.

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article