Modern day Pok-ta-pok players in action

3,000-Year-Old Ball Game Where Winners Lost Their Heads Is Revived in Mexico

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In order to commemorate and honor Mexican heritage, teams from Mexico and Belize competed against each other in a three millennia-old game known as Ulama. The game took place in the ancient Mayan city of Teotihuacan on Saturday, gathering a large crowd of fans cheering and celebrating their ancient Mesoamerican roots.

The “Resurrection” of the Most Ancient Team Sport in History

In Mexico, local organizers have been trying for over a decade now to revive an ancient Mesoamerican ball game because of its cultural and religious significance for the people of Central America. As BBC News reports , Ulama is considered to be the oldest known team sport in the world since it was played by the ancient Mesoamerican cultures of Central America nearly a thousand years before the establishment of the first ancient Olympic Games in Greece. The game was played for almost 2,500 years before being banned by the Spanish invaders.

Ulama: The Deadly Sport of the Ancient Americas

As Bryan Hill reports in a previous Ancient Origins article , this athletic event was not just a game for the ancient peoples, but a major part of Mesoamerican culture played by the Olmec, Mayan and Aztec civilizations. According to ancient texts Ulama was viewed as a battle between the sun against the moon and stars representing the principle of lightness and darkness (and possibly the battle between good and evil). Additionally, the motion of the ball symbolized the rotation of the sun for the Aztez, Olmeca and Mayan people.

Ball player disc from Chinkultic, Chiapas

Ball player disc from Chinkultic, Chiapas ( CC By 2.0 )

To the Mayans, the game was known as Pok a Tok, to the Aztec it was Tlachtli, while nowadays most people refer to it as Ulama.  Believed to have extended as far south as Paraguay and north into present day Arizona, the earliest known Mesoamerican ball court is Paso de la Amada in Mexico, which has been radiocarbon dated to around 3600 years old.  Nearly 1,300 Mesoamerican ball courts have been found to this day and it is estimated that every Mesoamerican city of antiquity had at least one.  The Olmec courts were the size of a modern day football field and when seen from an aerial view, looked like a capital “I” with two perpendicular end zones at the top and bottom.  They were lined with stone blocks and played on a rectangular court with slanted walls.  These walls were often plastered and brightly painted.  Serpents, jaguars, raptors were depicted alongside images of human sacrifice suggesting a connection to the divinity.

The ball game court of Chichen Itzá

The ball game court of Chichen Itzá ( CC by SA 3.0 )

The exact rules of the game are unknown since the evidence available is garnered from the interpretations made from sculptures, art, ball courts, and glyphs. From the available archaeological finds, however, historians estimate that the large rubber ball used could weigh up to three to eight pounds and had a diameter around 25 to 37 centimeters (10 to 12 inches).  This was about the size of a basketball except that the ball was more solid on the inside (weighing much more), often resulting the death of players when it hit them in the wrong place. For that reason and to prevent severe injuries or death, players eventually began wearing equipment. 

The most interesting part, however, is the fact that if a particular game had a religious purpose, the winning team were decapitated and offered as a sacrifice and this was considered a great honor. And that’s not just speculation. Various illustrations included in Pre-columbian books such as the Codex Borgia and on carved stone friezes decorating the walls of ball courts at the sites of Chichen Itza and El Tajin, clearly portray the decapitation of one team’s captain by the other or by a priest. 

Small detail of a reproduction of a mural at the Tepantitla complex of Teotihuacan depicting a ball player

Small detail of a reproduction of a mural at the Tepantitla complex of Teotihuacan depicting a ball player ( CC by SA 2.0 )

Ulama in 2017

Fortunately for the players who are willing to play the modern form of the game today, Ulama’s rules have softened up drastically compared to the ancient game’s deadly practices. The game is played by teams of seven players, who try to pound a heavy solid rubber ball up and down an arrow pitch, using their hips. Modern Ulama could be described as an equivalent sport to soccer but with the main difference being that the players are only allowed to use their hips instead of their feet. When one team fails to keep the ball within the playing field then the opposing team earns a point.

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