The Lost Continent of Kumari Kandam

The Lost Continent of Kumari Kandam

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Most people are familiar with the story of Atlantis, the legendary sunken city as described by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. Till this day, opinion is still divided as to whether this story should be understood literally or taken merely as a morality tale. Further east in the subcontinent of India is a similar tale, though it probably is less well known compared to that of Atlantis. This is the ‘lost continent’ of Lemuria, frequently connected to the legend of Kumari Kandam by speakers of the Tamil language.

The term Lemuria has its origins in the latter part of the 19 th century. The English geologist Philip Sclater was puzzled by the presence of lemur fossils in Madagascar and India but not in mainland Africa and the Middle East. Thus, in his 1864 article entitled ‘The Mammals of Madagascar’, Sclater proposed that Madagascar and India were once part of a larger continent, and named this missing landmass ‘Lemuria’. Sclater’s theory was accepted by the scientific community of that period as the explanation of the way lemurs could have migrated from Madagascar to India or vice versa in ancient times. With the emergence of the modern concepts of continental drift and plate tectonics, however, Sclater’s proposition of a submerged continent was no longer tenable. Yet, the idea of a lost continent refused to die, and some still believe that Lemuria was an actual continent that existed in the past.

One such group is the Tamil nationalists. The term Kumari Kandam first appeared in the 15 th century Kanda Puranam, the Tamil version of the Skanda Puranam. Yet, stories about an ancient land submerged by the Indian Ocean have been recorded in many earlier Tamil literary works. According to the stories, there was a portion of land that was once ruled by the Pandiyan kings and was swallowed by the sea. When narratives about Lemuria arrived in colonial India, the country was going through a period when folklore was beginning to permeate historic knowledge as facts. As a result, Lemuria was quickly equated with Kumari Kandam.

Bhagavata-Purana, 10th Skanda

Bhagavata-Purana, 10th Skanda. Image source .

The story of Kumari Kandam is not regarded as just a story, but seems to be laden with nationalistic sentiments. It has been claimed that the Pandiyan kings of Kumari Kandam were the rulers of the whole Indian continent, and that Tamil civilisation is the oldest civilisation in the world. When Kumari Kandam was submerged, its people spread across the world and founded various civilisations, hence the claim that the lost continent was also the cradle of human civilisation.

So, how much truth is there in the story of Kumari Kandam? According to researchers at India’s National Institute of Oceanography, the sea level was lower by 100 m about 14,500 years ago and by 60 m about 10,000 years ago. Hence, it is entirely possible that there was once a land bridge connecting the island of Sri Lanka to mainland India. As the rate of global warming increased between 12,000 and 10,000 years ago, the rising sea levels resulted in periodic flooding. This would have submerged prehistoric settlements that were located around the low-lying coastal areas of India and Sri Lanka. Stories of these catastrophic events may have been transmitted orally from one generation to another and finally written down as the story of Kumari Kandam.

One piece of evidence used to support the existence of Kumari Kandam is Adam’s Bridge (also called Rama’s Bridge), a chain of limestone shoals made up of sand, silt and small pebbles located in the Palk Strait extending 18 miles from mainland India to Sri Lanka.  This strip of land was once believed to be a natural formation, however, others argue that images taken by a NASA satellite depict this land formation to be a long broken bridge under the ocean's surface. 

The location of Adam's Bridge between India and Sri Lanka

The existence of a bridge in this location is also supported by another ancient legend.  The Ramayana tells the tale of Sita, Rama’s wife, being held captive on the island of Lanka. Rama commissions a massive building project to construct a bridge to transport his army of Vanara (ape men) across the ocean to Lanka. 

As with most so-called myths, it seems likely that there is at least some truth to the ancient Tamil legends of Kumari Kandam, but just how much, is yet to be determined.

By Ḏḥwty


Jayakaran, S. C., 2011`. The Lemuria Myth. [Online]
Available at:

Mahalingam, N., 2010. Lemuria and Kumari Kandam. [Online]
Available at:


When we don't have enough information, we should decide that "we don't know."

Why is there a division, here? Should there be? For those who think Atlantis was pure fiction, show your proof! For those who think that Atlantis was real, again, show your proof!

We have startling evidence that proves an Atlantis-like event occurred right when Atlantis supposedly sank into the ocean. This alone doesn't prove Atlantis, but it holds open the door. Perhaps the door should be held open so long as we don't have proof against it.

The article errs by saying that with the existence of "the modern concepts of continental drift and plate tectonics, however, Sclater’s proposition of a submerged continent was no longer tenable." Really? How does plate tectonics make such a lost island untenable? A major convergent boundary occurs south of India and Sri Lanka. Mountains (and islands) occur where plates converge.

The movement of tectonic plates is extremely slow, making the time when Madagascar and India touched long before lemurs existed. By about 65 Ma, when lemurs first evolved, Madagascar and the Indian island were separated by about 1,000 miles.

There is still a great deal we do not know. Too many jump to unfounded conclusions. Even I do, on occasion. We need to be aware of this and err on the side of restraint (not skepticism).

There is an exceptional book on Atlantis written by the Late Prof. Santos called, Atlantis - The Lost Continent Finally Found. He was a nuclear physicist from Brazil who actually set out to prove once and for all that there never was any Atlantis & that it is only myth. He researched on this topic for over 10 years after which he came to the conclusion that not only was Atlantis a real continent, but he gave very, very good & plausible reasons to where its location was. And if that is to be believed then Atlantis & Kumari Kandam would be the same continent that was lost beneath the seas. Interesting, isn't it? :)

I just wanted to say, that we all must keep an open mind, for we do not know truly what the history of this planet is. And thank you for your well stated comment.

I agree with you and we can't know what could have happened in the past unless we were there.So we shouldn't be judgemental

Just keep on asking for the Proofs and just dont let your brain to think beyond your Body!
If you dont have a open mind, you will never have time to invest time or money to do the research. I wish people like you should perish just like the Kumari Kandam!

In kumari-kandam-lost-continent maya muni lived with his twelve shishyas..
He wrote grammar of grammars (we can see it in oldest tholkappiyam , which followed the way of 'aiynthiram' derived by maya muni ) , arts, music, sculpture, architecture, temple agamas,...
The vast information we can get in 'vaisampayanam' a work of vaisampayanar published by Dr v. Ganapathy sthapathy

Interesting article but how can that missing piece of land fit in when it comes to the continent of Pangea? The current contents all fit together like a puzzle to show how the 1 huge continent looked a long time ago.

I often hear that continental drift is a fact and that it happens slowly over millions of years. The idea that Pangea shows us how neatly the continents all fit together is also often cited. No one seems to find it strange that over the millions of years of plate tectonics, where tectonic plates are 'slowly' eating away at each other with one plate going over or under the opposing plate, that the continents still piece together neatly like a jigsaw puzzle. Where is all the evidence of the plate tectonics? The surfaces of the earth at the time of Pangea should be now closer to the edges of the tectonic plates or under the the plates themselves, but scientists tell us the continents have hardly changed and they still fit neatly together. To me it sounds more like something moved the continents to their present positions over a short amount time to be able to keep the continents in a similar shape and form that they still are today. Something like a world wide flood could do this, but plate tectonics and slow continental drift can not. Have a look at Google earth and you can still see today where the continents once were positioned prior to the flood: North AmerIca, South America and Africa were once joined which is obvious, but we can still see the evidence of where China and India were once positioned. If continental drift and plate tectonics were actually transforming our planet there shouldn't still be outlines where the continents were once positioned but there are.

Oceanic plates are the ones constantly being recycled - new material spreads from the mid-ocean ridges and then get pushed under the continental plates. The continental plates are composed of lighter elements, so they generally get pushed around by tectonic forces without changing much.

I'm surprised nobody mentioned that a year ago when you posted.

"Rama commissions a massive building project to construct a bridge to transport his army of Vanara (ape men) across the ocean to Lanka"

Those "Ape-Men" where probably Homosapiens (Humans!) but to Rama (an Alien) we where/are simply ape-men

Or, the Ape Men or Ape-like-Men could be the Neanderthals. :)

Check out artwork. They really did look like apes and not humans or neanderthalers.

Those Ape Men were the species much closer to the Homo-Erectus, species just before the evolution of a modern human being. Lord Rama can be considered as an alien but only in "Scientology."

Could this be the fabled Atlantis...India has the legends of Mount Meru , the epics of Ramayana are set in this area with extentions to south east Asian countries like Cambodia and Indonesia....the area is fairly active with volcanoes and earthquakes....the settings perfect for the sinking of the Atlantis.

Daily article in front page of newspaper should be at the earliest cover about steps to tackle global warming. Its more informative and life saving than current scenario. Large share of mass including me are unaware of existence of steps to bring Mother earth back , with a high rate of deceleration in G.W. process. Action echoes louder than speech. I think more videos on activities like planting tree that is more common, and other means which are not known by public should be transmitted through internet. The lesson we should learn from is the after effect of large scale melting of polar ice. We may become the continent who may be washed in near future. Its not about fear of death, but history if possible can be proved lessons for mankind, Nature has fury and also calm, when we co operate may be Nature least struggle to regain balance.

Tsurugi's picture

The problem is that the climate has always been in flux on this planet. It is always changing, and eventually those changes become catastrophic, for reasons that are not well understood by science.
But without that understanding, it is impossible to tell if modern climate change is being appreciably affected by the actions of mankind, and if so, how much and in what way.

Also, since we don't know what changes are natural, we can't be certain which ones are artificial(caused by man). This makes it difficult to accurately work to counteract climate changes induced by mankind.

Plus, what's the point? We know that the climate changes by itself, and has been doing so since long before mankind was even around. We know those natural changes eventually become catastrophic. So even if we all completely stopped using modern technology and went back to living in the trees, the climate would continue to change. And that change will eventually become catastrophic.

Curbing the activities of mankind will accomplish nothing.

Additionally, there is this basic fact: The primary driver of climate is the Sun. This can be simply illustrated through logic. Remove the sun, and there ceases to be any climate at all. The earth would be a frozen ball, including all of its atmospheric gases. It wouldn't matter how much "greenhouse gas" was in the atmosphere, it would still be frozen solid.

Atmospheric gases are, at most, secondary elements in earth's climate. The Sun is the primary element. And the sun has cycles of its own. It goes through hot and cool periods. But the effect of total insolation on overall climate is, again, not well understood, making it difficult to tell how much of climate change is caused by the sun and what is caused by various greenhouse gases.

Stop climate change? I don't think so. Whatever we might do to mitigate changes caused by the actions of mankind are not going to affect the natural changes. Burning less oil will have no effect on the Sun.

The argument is that Mankinds polluting ways are accelerating the rate of change to the point where we can't act fast enough to adapt to it. We have increased the maximum global temperature threshold that a natural cycle would have, pushing the limits of tolerance for most of mother nature.

We have also poisoned the planet with the burning of fossil fuels and left a toxic legacy of plastics which are destroying marine life by the millions and seeping petrochemicals into the Earth in landfills.

We never needed to use oil to the extent we do but now its in everything from your shampoo to the soles of your shoes and the ramifications of not only consumer waste but industrial waste on such a large scale needs to be considered.

Whilst Climate change is naturally occuring in many respects, we are not helping in anyway.

Tsurugi's picture

Except that none of that is really the case in the way you state it. The global average temp has been on the rise since the end of the little ice age in the late 1700s / early 1800s, and the rate of increase has remained perfectly steady from then up to the present day. It did not change at all with increases in mankind's CO2 output.

And the argument is not that natural climate change is being augmented by manmade climate change. AGW advocates argue that manmade climate change has completely overwhelmed any natural processes such that any changes we experience are now a result solely of manmade causes.

Pollution and manmade climate change or AGW are not the same thing. However terrible the problem of plastics in the ocean is, it does not contribute to increasing global temperatures and no one is trying to claim it does. Remember that AGW is said to be caused by CO2, a perfectly natural component of the atmosphere that all fauna exhale and all flora inhale. No one has yet had the audacity to rate CO2 as a pollutant(but they will eventually). So do not conflate the problem of pollution--which I agree is real in some cases and needs to be addressed--with manmade climate change.

Under water ruins south of India by graham Gancock at:

Kanda vs. Candia (Crete) directly related to Atlantis,
Skanda vs. Scandinavia, ancient seafarers,
Rama vs. 'Ab-rama' (father-Rama) a'Brahma aka Abram aka Abraham, owned India,
Captive vs. Sequestered-separated-residence (cf Hawaiians say VIP Ra 'captive'),
Linguistically interesting, And building a bridge atop a former land bridge obvious...

Kanda vs. Candia (Crete) directly related to Atlantis, No
Skanda vs. Scandinavia, ancient seafarers, NO
Rama vs. 'Ab-rama' (father-Rama) a'Brahma aka Abram aka Abraham, owned India, just NO lol

An artist’s depiction of Kumari Kandam. is actually a picture of Dwarka with the blue guy Krishna

The picture shown here as "Artist depiction of Kumari Kandam" is actually a picture copied from ISKCON's Srimad Bhagawatham. It shows Sri Krishna entering Dwaraka and its inhabitants receiving him.
Shame on you for this kind of plagiarism.
If you want to sound authentic, stop copying other website photos.
Each and every picture in Srimad Bhagawatham is unique and breath taking.

chris6a2's picture

The image has now been removed, thank you for letting us know.


This great cycle brings great to down the greatest morel tamil people become something else searching for answer went down and now we searching for someone question witch is already questioned by us . this may be meant to happen as said in kalyugam the top secrete research,space research,and other research happening and happend that knowledge came from secret Sanskrit ancient secret language live and developed in KUMARI kandam whatever world know about secret its not even one 1% of what it is they just know the story they have and people remember the many scientist conformed that the english,othe european language,aferican language,greek and latin mostly contain way of Sanskrit ....we already have greatest way to live we great life in this planet we left that and now we confused and trying to get fit in..

Why do we always assume that it was climate related water rise? What if the earth was shifted on its axis, by some celestial event and everything was displaced? There would be massive earthquakes and flooding. A technological global civilization would have been decimated and the survivors would have been rocked back to the Stone Age.

Town of Krishna has been found years ago under water. The real question is why mainstream media keep this quiet. Just like in Turkey very ancient ruins have been found and completely covered up again. As if there is something they do not want common humanity to know/find out about. Dwarka, India - 12,000 Year Old City of Lord Krishna Found


Another great article

I was raised by My Maternal Grandparents , My Dad figured Atlantis Wasn't an Island but rather a Ship ! and instead of Sinking it Took Off ! What do You think ?

Forgive Me I should have added My Grand Dad was born 1920 He Instilled in me a Fascination for Ancient Archaeology .. .I read all his childhood books from Jules Verne and others ,

Atlantis was not a land.. Atlantis was a word best sea force who rules kumari kandam kingdom.. 7 kingdom.. every kingdom had 7 countries.. total 47 countries 7 kingdom ruled and developed by space knowledge, routes. etc. etc.. that ancient tamils friends.. research deeply...

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