A man marrying a deceased woman in China

Ghost Marriages: Love For the Living and the Deceased

(Read the article on one page)

The tradition of the ghost marriage is one that supposedly stretches back to the first imperial dynasty of China: the Qin Dynasty, dating from the years 221 BC-206 BC. The most comprehensive early records of the practice, however, appear to come from the following dynasty: the Han (206 BC-220AD). The purpose of the tradition is to ensure that if a man or woman dies young and unmarried, they should still travel to the afterlife with a spouse, thus protecting both the name of their living family and guaranteeing company for the deceased in next world.

A Ghost Marriage: Keeps the Phantom Happy and the Living with Luck

The most common form of ghost marriage was to wed a dead man to a dead woman, whether or not they had been previously engaged. The ritual, however, went beyond just ensuring a partner for the deceased men and women. According to legend, if someone passed away and was not given a proper ghost wedding, he or she would haunt the family home until such an arrangement was made.

Zhong Kui, the being that banished ghosts and evil entities in ancient China

Zhong Kui, the being that banished ghosts and evil entities in ancient China ( Wikimedia Commons )

In haunting the family, the younger generations were at risk for a downfall in their family name and fortune. Thus, the wedding was not merely for the assurance of the dead, but equally important—sometimes more so—for the sake of the remaining living family members.

Ghost Marriages For the Living: Male Preference in Life and Death

Yet a marriage between two deceased people was not the only type of ghost marriage.  Interestingly, both participants did not actually have to be deceased. It was also traditional that if the male spouse died young, his fiancée could decide to go through with the wedding anyway with another person standing in for him during the ceremony. Though the man was deceased, the woman would be given a home and protection by his extended family, and thus the woman would not be at risk for never marrying—something highly looked down upon in ancient Chinese culture.

A young woman requesting money to have a ghost marriage with her boyfriend who died in a 2008 earthquake, Chongqing, China

A young woman requesting money to have a ghost marriage with her boyfriend who died in a 2008 earthquake, Chongqing, China ( TheShrineoDreams)

However, if a woman were to die young and unwed, she could not be given a proper funeral or spirit tablet, as that was the responsibility of the husband's family and never of her birth family. A living man could also go through the same ghost marriage if his bride prematurely died, yet his marital status had no importance on whether he could be properly buried upon his own early demise. There is much less evidence of ghost marriages occurring between a living man and his dead bride, as protection in death as well as a wider range of freedoms in life existed for a man, regardless if he were single or married.

Posthumous Marriage in France

China was (and is not) the only culture to have practiced this tradition of ghost marriage.  In World War I, a similar practice was adopted in France, as women who had lost their fiancés to the war still wished to marry them, and thus did so by proxy. It continued forty years later and came to be known as "posthumous marriage" after a tragic dam break resulted in a woman begging to gain permission to wed the fiancé who had died in the accident. Since then, the practice has become protected under French marriage laws and can still be granted for a variation of reasons.

Ghost Marriages and Future Children: The Nuer Tribe

Other cultures are also known to have later adopted the custom, most notably some tribes from the country of Sudan. In the Nuer tribe, it was commonly the brother of the groom who replaced the dead fiancé in the wedding ceremony as a stand-in, though the brother would have to engage with "his brother's wife" as her true husband. Therefore, if any children were to come from the union of the brother of the dead groom and the wife, those children would be considered the offspring of the dead man and not those of the living brother.

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Human Origins

Was the Heretic Pharaoh Akhenaton in Fact the Father of Modern Monotheism?
This passage may read like a passage from the Old Testament of the Bible; but, this is a quote from the Hymn of Aten, a work by Pharaoh Amenhotep IV better known as Akhenaton. This so-called heretic king was the only known Pharaoh in Egyptian history who believed in a monotheistic doctrine when most of the ancient world adhered to polytheism.

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article