From Chrome Plating to Nanotubes: The ‘Modern’ Chemistry First Used in Ancient Times

From Chrome Plating to Nanotubes: The ‘Modern’ Chemistry First Used in Ancient Times

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By Mark Lorch  | Epoch Times 

The ancient Babylonians were the first to use sophisticated geometry – a staggering 1,400 years before it was previously thought to have been developed. Sadly, these mathematical innovations were forgotten as the Babylonian civilisation collapsed and were  only rediscovered  this year as scientists took a close look at ancient clay tablets.

This surprising finding made me wonder about what other scientific methods that we put down to modern minds were actually discovered by ancient civilisations. So I decided to hunt down some of the most advanced uses of chemistry.

Qin Dynasty Chrome Plating

The mirrored shine of chrome-plated metal is almost a symbol of the modern era. A thin chrome layer coats metals and plastics in kitchens, bathrooms and cars. Credit for chrome-plating technology goes to George Sargent  who published a method in 1920  that lead to the commercial plating that dominated the  Art Deco period  and beyond. In fact, other famous chemists including  Robert Bunsen  dabbled with chrome plating in the mid-19th century. But all of these may have been beaten to the shine by the metallurgists of the Qin dynasty in China some 2,000 years before chrome had even been identified in the West.

Qin dynasty sword on display.

Qin dynasty sword on display. (Mark Lorch, CC BY-ND 4.0)

In the 1970s, razor sharp swords  coated in a thin layer of chromium oxide  were unearthed along with the the  famous Terracotta army . The Chinese suggest that their 1st dynasty weapon smiths coated officers’ weapons to protect them from corrosion. And indeed, two millennia later the blades are untarnished. However, whether this is really the case or in fact the chromium layer slowly formed from a peculiarity of the blade’s composition and the fires that ravaged the buried terracotta army is amatter of debate .

Roman Concrete

Concrete is the mainstay of modern buildings, but ancient civilisations also used it to great effect. Concrete is a composite, meaning that it is made from two or more materials; cement is mixed with sand and gravel, which then sets into whatever structure is required. The most famous ancient concrete buildings are probably the Pantheon and Colosseum in Rome. Both are composed of fine volcanic ash mixed with lime ( calcium hydroxide ).

Colosseum in Rome.

Colosseum in Rome. (Diliff/CC BY-SA 2.5)

Together these make the cement, which sets and binds fist sized pieces of limestone together. This particular recipe produces  a network of crystals that resist propagation of cracks, the bane of modern concrete. The result is an incredibly enduring material that is, in many ways, superior to today’s concrete. A testament to this is the majestic roof of the  Pantheon, which, at 43 metres across, is still the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome.

Damascene Nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes  are the strongest and stiffest materials known. They consist of cylinders with walls that are just one atom thick. When used within composite materials they can massively enhance the strength of an object resulting in super strong and light components, some of which you can find in wind turbines, sports gear and vehicles.

18th-century Persian-forged Damascus steel sword.

18th-century Persian-forged Damascus steel sword. (Rahil Alipour Ata Abadi)

In 2006 researchers discovered that the people of Damascus  were making use of nanotubes  in their steel hundreds of years ago. The result was beautiful blades covered in swirling patterns. And more importantly for the soldiers of the time was the exceptional durability and the razor-sharp edges the steel held. We now know the exact composition of Damascus steel, yet modern metallurgists have failed to reproduce it so far.

Egyptian Pigments

Pyxis made out of Egyptian blue from 750-700 BC. Shown at Altes Museum in Berlin.

Pyxis made out of Egyptian blue from 750-700 BC. Shown at Altes Museum in Berlin. (Bairuilong, CC BY-SA 4.0)

William Perkin  is credited with producing the first organic dye (using chemists’ meaning of the word organic – in other words, carbon-containing chemicals) when he accidentally discovered  purple mauveine  while trying to make quinine in 1856.

But the first synthetic pigment of any type was probably made by the Egyptians as early as 3000BC. By heating a mixture of sand, ash, calcium carbonate (possibly from shells), and a copper containing ore to temperatures of over 800°C they manufactured blue calcium copper silicate. This could be then be used in glazes to produce a stunning range of hues.

Greek Atomic Theory

The incredible technologies devised by craftsman and artists of ancient civilisations are astounding. Much of it can’t be bettered by modern techniques. But what separates science from skilled craft is an understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in the making of the material. Underpinning this understanding in modern chemistry is the atomic theory often credited to  John Dalton  in the early 19th century. But philosophers of old also had a good crack at thinking about the nature of matter. And in fact  atomism has sprung up multiple times in antiquity . Most notably from the Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus who speculated that everything is composed of physical, indivisible and invisible atoms back in the 5th century BC. The Conversation

Comments

In regards to the correct spelling with words, just to let you know with the word happyness as you have spelled it this is not the correct spelling. You should have dropped the 'y' and replaced it with an 'i'.

Just wanting to ensure 'correctness' as you do.

Spelling may not matter in personal correspondence, or in the Pursuit of Happyness, but when someone gets paid to write an article and/or when one publishes, spelling really is important. When spelling is shoddy, it points to sloppiness and laziness overall. If I'm looking for information, I don't want it gathered sloppily or lazily, thanks. I want exact information, and attention to detail. That said, there are different acceptable spellings in some cases. The difference between the use of "z" in American spelling, versus the use of "s" in every other English speaking country is one example.

It matters not if the spelling is correct, what matters is if the idea is passed along or not. Proper spelling does help, but is not the reason behind the articles. To pass along information is the gist of it. As well as gaining in our small brains a little more of what has been done before we popped into this world this time. My belief is that we are recycled over and over, our slates are washed clean and we learn again. Some of us remember what has happened before, I have memory's of a few past lives, not much of them true, however....... it does not matter. I ramble. I hole thing is to pass along ideas, good or not, and let others develop ideas, keep it churning, make the butter from the cream.

you would be better off familiarising yourself with the slight differencez between british and merican english, and then not worrying about such trivial thingz.

I hope author of article here learns to spell better.
civilization is spelled with Z.. not s.
Thanks.

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