The Celsus Library: 20,000 Scrolls Lost to History but Its Striking Architecture Remains
Across the Greco-Roman world, there were many collections of scrolls, some kept by private individuals in personal libraries and others stored in public libraries such as the Great Library of Alexandria. One such library that, whose impressive ruins still stand today, is the Library of Celsus in Ephesus, Turkey. The Library of Celsus was the third largest library in Classical Antiquity. It is known for its striking architecture and for the fact that it once held 12,000 scrolls containing a wealth of knowledge from the ancient world. Sadly, none of them survived the library’s destruction in 262 AD.
The Library of Celsus as it stands today ( CC by SA 2.0 / Carole Raddato )
The Library of Celsus was built in 114-117 AD and was commissioned by Tiberius Julius Aquilla in honor of his father, the former Roman proconsul of Ephesus, Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus (proconsul 105-107 AD). The library was near the agora in the center of the city. Built into the library’s monumental facade are niches with statues of personifications of wisdom ( sophia), knowledge ( episteme), intelligence ( ennoia), and virtue ( arete) built into them. Inside the library, the bottom floor is paved with marble. The second floor consisted of a balcony that went around the edge of the building. Along the side of the building was a series of niches for holding the many scrolls.
There appear to be conflicting accounts of how the library was destroyed. In one source, it was said to have been burned during a Gothic attack, while in another source it was destroyed in an earthquake. In either case, the library was damaged in 262 AD, but was repaired and continued to be used into the 4th century.
Like many Roman libraries, the Library of Celsus had very elaborate architecture and the specific architectural style used would become characteristic of the architecture constructed during the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD).
Elaborate architectural features at the Library of Celsus ( public domain )
Although none of the architecture of the Library of Alexandria survives, we do know a great deal about it from historical sources. We know that it was founded by a student of Aristotle, Demetrius of Phaleron, and that it was inspired by Alexander the Great who wanted to build a universal library containing all the world’s knowledge. We also know that the library was part of a larger research institution known as the Mouseion which is the Greek word from which the English museum descends. The Mouseion contained quarters which housed scholars who were part of the research institution and studied a variety of subjects including mathematics, astronomy, and theology. We also know that the Library of Alexandria contained the works of Aristotle, and copies of the works of Euripides, Aeschylus, and Sophocles among many others. Very little on the other hand is known about the Library of Celsus even though it was one of the largest libraries in the ancient world. We do not know its contents or its administration.
Although it is unknown exactly how the library differed from other libraries in the ancient world, it is possible to make inferences based on other large Roman libraries from the period.
Most Roman libraries were private libraries within the home of a wealthy individual. An example would be the one in Villa De Pisoni in the town Herculaneum or Heracleum.
Some libraries, such the library in Pergamum, which became the model for many major Roman libraries, were public libraries. They usually consisted of a building with elaborate architecture for storing books and a porch from which a scroll could be read aloud. Written texts in the ancient world were read aloud even in private, so public libraries were commonly the location of public reading.
Most Roman libraries contained both a Greek section and a Latin section. This tradition was conceived by Julius Caesar, who wanted to increase the intellectual prominence of Rome after visiting Alexandria. It was eventually realized by August Caesar who built a library in Rome with Greek and Latin sections with the intention to create a library rivaling the Library of Alexandria. Most of these public Roman libraries did not end up being very important as educated Romans generally preferred to use personal libraries for their studies. It does however give us an idea of how the Library of Celsus may have functioned, primarily as a storehouse for books that could be read publicly from a porch at the front.