The 7,000-Year-Old Chinchorro Mummies of the Andes
The mummies of ancient Egypt are arguably the most famous mummies in the world. They are not, however, the oldest that we know of. The Chinchorros of South America began preserving their dead about 7,000 years ago and their mummies have become one of the wonders of Andean archaeology.
The Chinchorros were a people who inhabited the coast of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile and southern Peru between 7000 and 1500 B.C. The people of this culture relied on fishing, hunting and gathering for subsistence. Whilst the earliest known Chinchorro sites date to 7000 B.C., mummification, based on current evidence, dates to 5000 B.C. The Chinchorro mummies were first identified in 1917 by the German archaeologist, Max Uhle. Further excavations showed that such mummies were spread along the coast and concentrated between Arica and Camerones. It was in 1983, however, that the largest and best-preserved find of Chinchorro mummies was discovered. This discovery was made not by archaeologists, but by the Arica water company whilst laying a new pipeline near the foot of El Morro.
Whilst Uhle initially identified three categories of mummification to show an increasing complexity over time, archaeologists have since expanded upon his explanation. Accordingly, the two most common methods used in Chinchorro mummification were the Black Mummy and the Red Mummy.
The Black Mummy technique was used from about 5000 B.C. to 3000 B.C. It involved dismemberment, in which the head, arms and legs of the dead were first removed. Then, the body was heat-dried, and the flesh was completely stripped from the bones. The skull was then cut in half, about eye level, in order to remove the brain. After drying the skull, it was packed with material and tied back together. The rest of the body was also put back together. To strengthen the limbs and spinal column, sticks were used under the skin. The body was also packed with materials such as clay and feathers. The skull was then reattached to the reassembled body. A white ash paste was used to cover the body and also to fill the gaps left by the reassembling process. Furthermore, this was used to fill out the person’s normal facial features.
An artist’s depiction of the mummification process. Image source .
The Red Mummy technique was used from about 2500 B.C. to 2000 B.C. This was a completely different method compared to the Black Mummy technique, as the Chinchorros made incisions in the trunk and shoulders of the dead to remove the internal organs and dry the body cavity. To remove the brain, the head was cut off from the body. Like the Black Mummy technique, however, the body was stuffed with various materials in order to make it look more human-like. In addition, sticks were used to provide structural support. The incisions were then sewed up, and the head placed back on the body. A wig, made from tassels of human hair was placed on the head, and held in place by a ‘hat’ made out of black clay. Everything else, apart from this wig, and often the face, would then be painted with red ochre.
A Chinchorro mummy. Image source .
The Chinchorro mummies appear to reflect the spiritual beliefs of the ancient Chinchorro people, although the exact reason why they mummified their dead is unknown. Some scholars maintain that it was to preserve the remains of their loved ones for the afterlife, while another commonly accepted theory is that there was an ancestor cult of sorts, since there is evidence of both the bodies traveling with the groups and of being placed in positions of honour during major rituals, as well as a delay in the final burial itself.
One of most impressive features of the Chinchorros mummies is the scale at which it was done. Unlike the ancient Egyptians, who reserved mummification for royalty and the elite, the Chinchorro community accorded everyone, regardless of age or status, this sacred rite. The decision of egalitarian preservation is proven in the mummification of all members of society and included men, women, the elderly, children, infants, and miscarried foetuses. In fact, it is often the case that children and babies received the most elaborate mummification treatments.
One explanation for this egalitarian funerary practice is climate change. As the Atacama Desert is one of the driest places on earth, corpses would have been preserved naturally. Moreover, as the Chinchorros buried their dead in shallow graves, it is likely that the bodies were partially exposed by winds. As the level of seawater increased around 6000 to 7000 years ago, the amount of marine resources also increased, which in turn supported a larger population. As the group size increased, there would be a greater exchange of ideas, leading to more prosperity and cultural complexity, one of them would be the practice of mummification. Perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of the Chinchorros is that, based on the available evidence, it appears that social hierarchy was not developed, unlike other early civilisations. How this culture managed to remain egalitarian for many millennia and function at a social level without hierarchy is something that has intrigued archaeologists and anthropologists for decades. Research into this aspect of their culture is ongoing.