The Monumental Temple of Hibis: Memories of Glory Days by the Last Egyptian Pharaoh of Kemet

The Monumental Temple of Hibis: Memories of Glory Days by the Last Egyptian Pharaoh of Kemet

(Read the article on one page)

Nectanebo II is known as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt; Persians and the ancestors of Alexander the Great took over after his reign. Although these circumstances led to Nectanebo II being one of the most underrated pharaohs of Egypt, the temple of Hibis, completed during his reign, tells a fascinating story of the change that took place between the ancient Egyptian glory days and the change to the new regime.

The temple of Hibis was built during the Third Intermediate Period, around the 6th century BC. It is the best preserved and the biggest temple in the Kharga Oasis. Moreover, the site is one of the symbols of the change of ancient Egyptian authority. It connects the attributes of the powerful Egyptian and Persian kings. The temple is a monument attesting to the last four dynasties in the history of Egypt.

Head of Nectanebo II, Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon.

Head of Nectanebo II, Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon. ( CC BY-SA 2.0 fr )

Honoring the Gods of the Golden Age

The temple of Hibis is located very close to the modern city known as Kharga. This area is dominated by military structures and many remarkable archaeological sites. Originally, the temple of Hibis was planned as a dedication to Amun, Mut, and Khonsu. However, it became mostly associated with Amun, who is also called the Lord of Hibis. Several influential pharaohs of Egypt worshipped Amun.

Thus, the building of another impressive temple in his name may have been an attempt to bring back the glory days of the ancient Egyptian civilization. The golden age of Egypt was connected with cults for gods like Amun, Ra, Mut, etc. Therefore, some chambers in the temple of Hibis were also dedicated to Osiris, Set, and Mut. The last two deities are depicted on large and elaborate reliefs. The ideology depicted on the temple’s walls is related to the classical Theban traditions and inspired by the temples of Karnak and Luxor.

An exterior wall of the Hibis temple dedicated to the Theban triad (Amun, Mut & Khonsu) during its recent restoration.

An exterior wall of the Hibis temple dedicated to the Theban triad (Amun, Mut & Khonsu) during its recent restoration. ( CC BY 2.0 )

Although construction began during the 26th dynasty, works weren’t completed until the reign of Nectanebo II. The walls were decorated during the reign of Darius I (552 BC). Researchers claim that both Nectanebo I and Nectanebo II enlarged the existing temple. However, the close of Nectanebo II’s rule also ended the line of Egyptian kings on the throne near the Nile - and opened the gate to more foreign pharaohs in Egypt.

Relief of Darius I of Persia, as Pharaoh of Egypt

Relief of Darius I of Persia, as Pharaoh of Egypt. ( CC BY 2.0 )

The Influence of Darius I

The temple of Hibis was also decorated with the texts by the Persian king Darius I, so it is a significant piece of art related to both Egyptian and Persian cultures. After many attempts to conquer Egypt, Persian rule took over during the 6th and 5th centuries BC. In Egypt, Darius ruled through the hands of the priest Udjahorresnet, who was a servant of Cambysses II prior to this role. Udjahorresnet was responsible for creating propaganda for the Persian ruler. He also had to show the king the way to act from the perspective of the Egyptian religion and rituals.

Udjahorresnet’s cartouche was discovered in the temple of Hibis. It was also found on an alabaster storage jar unearthed in Susa and in the ruins of the ancient fortress of Quar el Ghuieta. According to David Klotz:

“Darius I generally supported the local religious cults of his conquered territory. In Egypt, this is most obvious at Hibis Temple, where he significantly expanded the construction initiated earlier by Psammetichus II, and began temple decoration and inscription of texts (518 bce). A priest from Sais, Udjahorresne, describes the visit of Darius to the temple of Neith. After this trip, Darius expelled the occupying foreigners (xAsty.w), ordered that it be re-purified and that its festivals be reinstated as before, and even made offerings to Neith herself. In addition, Darius took care to bury the Apis bull at Memphis who had died immediately prior to his arrival.”

Osiris is presented on the walls in traditional ritual scenes, moreover, King Darius is presented on each wall performing a ritual related to the Egyptian beliefs. Presenting the rituals of Persians wouldn't be understood near the Nile. In fact, nobody was really interested in the exact religious practices of Darius, all that really mattered was the presentation in the temple that was seen by the gods.

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Human Origins

Silhouettes (Public Domain) in front of blood cells (Public Domain) and a gene.
Most people who have the Rh blood type are Rh-positive. There are also instances, however, where people are Rh-Negative. Health problems may occur for the unborn child of a mother with Rh-Negative blood when the baby is Rh-Positive.

Ancient Technology

Roman glass (not the legendary flexible glass). Landesmuseum Württemberg, Stuttgart.
Imagine a glass you can bend and then watch it return to its original form. A glass that you drop but it doesn’t break. Stories say that an ancient Roman glassmaker had the technology to create a flexible glass, ‘vitrium flexile’, but a certain emperor decided the invention should not be.

Ancient Places

Face of the coffin in which the mummy of Ramesses II was found. (Credit: Petra Lether, designed by Anand Balaji)
Usermaatre Setepenre Ramesses II, the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty, was one of ancient Egypt’s longest-reigning monarchs. In an astonishing sixty-seven regnal years – the glory days of empire that witnessed unprecedented peace and prosperity – the monarch built grand edifices and etched his name on innumerable monuments of his forbears.


Hopewell mounds from the Mound City Group in Ohio. Representative image
During the Early Woodland Period (1000—200 BC), the Adena people constructed extensive burial mounds and earthworks throughout the Ohio Valley in Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and West Virginia. Many of the skeletal remains found in these mounds by early antiquarians and 20th-Century archaeologists were of powerfully-built individuals reaching between 6.5 and eight feet in height (198 cm – 244 cm).

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article