"The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge.

Genes of 92 prehistoric Native Americans give further evidence of a terrible holocaust

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The genocide of Native Americans is considered by many to be the worst of any in history—outstripping the later Jewish and Roma Holocaust by as much as an order of magnitude.  Now a study of the maternal genes of skeletal and mummified remains of 92 South Americans dating from 8,600 to 500 years ago shows that all those lineages were wiped out. No living person descended from any the individuals tested is known to be living today.

It is unknown how many people lived in the Americas when Columbus and the other conquistadors arrived. Estimates range from 1 million to 100 million. One middling estimate puts the North American number alone at about 12 million people, who were reduced to 237,000 by 1900.

Of the 84 genetic lineages among the 92 South American remains, not one lineage survived contact with Europeans, a new study says.

“When Europeans arrived, some of those populations were wiped out completely,” Bastien Llamas, an author of the study who is a geneticist with the University of Adelaide, told Science .

DeSoto claiming the Mississippi, as depicted in the United States Capitol rotunda

DeSoto claiming the Mississippi, as depicted in the United States Capitol rotunda ( public domain )

Mitochondrial DNA provides only part of the picture, the article states—the line of mother to child. You don’t see if male genes survived, or even what happened with women who didn’t have children. (Though if they didn’t have children obviously their genes would not survive in present-day people.)

The Science article tells how the study was conducted. The researchers took DNA from the 92 skeletons and mummies from western South America, from Mexico to Chile. The team sequenced the mitochondrial genome of each person’s remains. Mitochondrial genes descend from mother to child, “so the sequences open a window onto the matrilineal heritage of indigenous Americans extending all the way back to their roots in Siberia,” the article states.

Natives reject the idea that all of their ancestors arrived from Siberia, so this study has an element of controversy. The article states:

By tallying up the random mutations that accumulate in populations that have been separated, geneticists can count backwards and figure out when two groups last had a common ancestor. When the researchers applied that technique to the 92 mummies and skeletons, they found that their ancestors had last been in contact with Siberian populations about 23,000 years ago. After that, a group with about 2000 child-bearing females (perhaps about 10,000 people total) spent 6000 years or so genetically cut off from other groups of humans. That supports the idea that the ancestors of the earliest Americans spent a few millennia stranded in Beringia, the now submerged landmass that once stretched from Siberia to Alaska, before the ice sheets started to melt and open up passages to the New World.

Map showing the location of Bering Land Bridge National Preserve

Map showing the location of Bering Land Bridge National Preserve ( public domain )

About 16,000 years ago there was a population boom. Suddenly, lineages began branching off, a time when, the researchers believe, people began to move from Beringia, which is now submerged, into the Americas. There, with new land and untapped resources, the population spread rapidly to every corner of the New World.

Alan Cooper, an evolutionary biologist who was a lead author of the study, said the only possible route was along the Pacific coast because the ice sheets were so thick and there was no way through farther inland.

“Everybody settled down,” the article states. “Within a few thousand years, many of the ancient lineages had already diverged from one another, meaning that people from one group were not having babies with people from another (or at least, their mothers weren’t moving around, since we’re talking about mitochondrial DNA). The team found 84 separate genetic lineages represented by the 92 samples , they report today in Science Advances.”

So how did all those unfortunate people die? This is another area of controversy among natives of North and South America and the Caribbean. While some say most natives were accidentally wiped out by disease, t he fact is, beginning with Columbus in the Caribbean, Cortez in Mexico and Pizarro in Peru, Europeans killed and enslaved natives. And it was no different in later years. Some natives died from being worked to death. Others starved. History books are filled with one attack on and slaughter of innocent native villagers after another. And yes, many died from disease.

16th century Aztec drawing of smallpox victims

16th century Aztec drawing of smallpox victims ( public domain )

This writer has often thought that if the Europeans knew they were infecting and killing natives with disease, the only decent thing they could have done would have been to quarantine themselves from these continents. But if you look at American Founding Fathers’ statements and texts , they had a deliberate policy to “remove” Indians, steal their territory and kill them off.

Comments

It seems modern critics of historical figures are intent on "demonizing" them with current moral standards. For instance, George Washington (along with many other contemporary figures) had just fought a war (1754) against the French. The French made ally's with Native Americans and used them as proxy fighters. Since no context was given for Washington's statement, we have no way to judge why he made it. Perhaps it was animus resulting from the war.
It should also be noted, during the time of Cortez, lives in general were held as cheap. No matter what nationality or color of skin, people were a means to an end at best, otherwise meaningless. I doubt Cortez had much feeling for his men, other than they were necessary as an army.

A suggested alternate title to this article could go something like... How To Force New Data Into An Unfounded Theory. To start with such an unfounded premise in not the scientific way. Huge gaps in the theory are problematic, especially when new archaeological data clearly shows the premise to be flawed. Any contrary evidence to the premise has been and continues to be rejected out of hand, New data is never mentioned when it calls the premise into question. One can hardly cal the discipline itself,
(anthropology) scientific anymore.

I fear this article is not so much missing facts, as utterly slap-happy history. A moment's thought would reveal that the Spanish invaders simply lacked the physical power & resources to exterminate so many native indians by brute violence.
Of course the colonialists exploited Indian labor with cruel violence & brutality, but that alone could not kill so many, especially amongst the tribes in remote forests & mountains (eg., the once-populous Amazon villages). Most plausibly, the poor native indians had no immunity to virulent epidemics brought from Europe.
This is particularly so for North American tribes. Many tribes were nomadic, & had horses. An Indian archer could fire off 20-odd arrows for every musket shot. But there was no escape from, or defence against, whiteman diseases.

Native peoples were slaughtered by the millions on both North and South America that is a fact. These comments trivialize that loss of life. Whether by sword or sickness it still was brought by hypocritical mostly Christian people. Shame on you for not recognizing that fact it would seem those lives mean nothing that isn't good science. I also participate in genetic research it tells a story whether you like the results or not.

Gloria Smith,
Shame on you for masquerading as someone with a modicum of intelligence.
White Christian people in that time period did not have the faintest idea what caused these diseases.
BTW: That takes away your feigned moral superiority and the liberal all purpose accusation, "hypocrite".
Sex with a virgin is the cure for AIDS is what passes for conventional wisdom and modern medical practice much of the non-white world today. This is non-white that has not been contaminated with white Christians. The youngest virgin to date is 7 months old.

As they succeeded to thrive more than 40000 years and in few century to disappear suddenly after the arrival of white Christina criminals it remains only one criminal to be charged !
The criminal white race !
USA it is a genocidal fraud of the history ! The land where criminals are heroes !?? Strange insane mentality and moral !
The same they did it in Europe in Russia( Europe too ) and all over their colonies !
All USA history it is suite of crimes against humanity !

No one thrived for 40,000 years in this story.

Your hate has crowded out the last cell in that nerve mass that functions as your brain.

If you wish to continue this discussion provide some facts to back up the narrative, since the author neglected to provide them.

You're the biggest purveyor of hate on this thread. All you do is come here to tear people down because you don't like what they say, and you offer nothing in the way of intelligent discussion. Have you got nothing better to do with your life?

That is some seriously warped thinking, and doesn't belong here. You need to read more history, man's inhumanity to man knows no bounds.

If that comment was intended for me, it is entirely unfounded.

I am well aware of man's inhumanity to man, that said, none of that inhumanity to man is found in the narrative nor many of the comments.

I see not any reason to call you an hypocrite without shame in a perfect ignorance status.
Please ask excuses to that lady you attacked !

Aleks Mici,
Hypocrites with and Overabundance of Ignorance,

Is that redundant?

I fail to see a need to seek excuses because I never attacked anyone.

There is no ignorance on my part because there is nothing but facts in my comment, which is more than I can say for the comment I addressed.

Glen,
There is nothing but ignorant facts in your comments. Not only are you ignorant, you are arrogant as well, because you deny you own complicity. You should be banned from this site..

In regards to your last paragraph, it sounds 'made-up'. What is "the non-white world" specifically? If these parts of the world are "non-white" as you claim, then how did they get AIDS? In these regions with the highest incident of these diseases there is always a link or clue that the disease was purposely put there by some agency connected with the 'white-world'. Whether it's smallpox infected blankets given to Native Americans during winter, or if it's injecting African-Americans with syphilis (Tuskegee Experiment) or using other vector agents like ticks (Lyme disease, Plum Island facility off the coast of New England where biological agents are cultivated and New England has a high incidence of Lyme disease, no coincidence) and mosquitoes to carry Zika and Nile virus agents. Same old tactics, same modus operandi, same old culprit. Same thing with AIDS. Is it a coincidence that the airliner that went down in East Asia a few years ago under mysterious circumstances with very little investigation was carrying 94 of the world's leading AIDS researchers? That was a 'hit', because they don't want their ace card in the biological agents game compromised by a widely available antidote.
"The truth is specific, lies are vague".
The only specific thing in your statement was some 'lie' about the youngest virgin in these vague "non-white areas". Because you know that if you named any areas, all someone had to do was fact-check and find your statements erroneous (fabricated) and catch you in a bold-faced lie!

Sub-Saharan Africa is where sex with a virgin is seen as a cure for AIDS. There could be others, but that is the only one I have read about.

Giving measles infected blankets to American Indians was never US government policy and is more of the lies that permeate American education. Measles is the lie, not small pox.
The Tuskegee experiments is something that did occur and it was criminal.

There was no such plane crash killing 94 AIDS experts. The rest of your lies are even more ridiculous than the ones I mentioned.

If you wish to continue this discussion provide proof for the specifics you cited. Don't bother with the infection of the Indians because it did not happen.

Are these "White Christian" people the same ones that presided over the inquisition or the Salem Witch trials or ALL the burnings at the stake, I suggest YOU go and try to find a "Modicum of intelligence" for your self

And before the Christians came, the natives were wiping each other out, some in wars that literally spanned years, and resulted in stories passed down through generations, about so many dead you couldn't walk the ground for the bodies. Of whole tribes and peoples being wiped out. HUMANS will fight and disagree and war and kill each other until kingdom come, It is the one thing that knows no race, color or creed, even if people use that as the excuse.

Nobody has to "demonize" them pal their own acts do that perfectly well and it's a sad reflection on today's world that we give titles like "The Great" to some of the worst psycho's in history

Tsurugi's picture

Yeah. Not only were the Europeans bloodthirsty genocidal monsters, they were stupid too. Apparently they were unaware that to properly commit genocide on a people, you really need to kill all of them. Every last one. This keeps them from coming back at some point in the future and exacting revenge and generally making life miserable for your descendants. Historically, most perpetrators of genocide seem to have been aware of this and, unless they were stopped(e.g., the Nazis), succeeded in killing every member of the groups they were after.

For instance, most of the Native American tribes have oral traditions that speak of various peoples their ancestors clashed with and subsequently wiped out, killing every last man, woman, and child. Quite often, it is said that the ancestors of the present-day Native Americans traveled here from some distant ancestral homeland, but found the land already occupied by some other group of humans. Several clashes ensued until eventually the earlier peoples were all dead.

Sound familiar?

It seems modern critics of historical figures are intent on "demonizing" them with current moral standards. For instance, George Washington (along with many other contemporary figures) had just fought a war (1754) against the French. The French made ally's with Native Americans and used them as proxy fighters. Since no context was given for Washington's statement, we have no way to judge why he made it. Perhaps it was animus resulting from the war.
It should also be noted, during the time of Cortez, lives in general were held as cheap. No matter what nationality or color of skin, people were a means to an end at best, otherwise meaningless. I doubt Cortez had much feeling for his men, other than they were necessary as an army.
Additionally, no one understood what caused disease in that time. It was most often taken as a sign gods were angry, or a punishment by God for being heathen. Since Cortez and his men weren't getting sick, it would have made sense to them it was an act of God.

Your whole statement is rendered completely useless by the inclusion of three words "current moral standards". What moral standards are you talking about? just take a look at the planet, the Middle East is on fire because of unbridled greed from the usa, there's thousands dead in Ukraine for the same reason, the millionaires and billionaires have made oodles of extra cash in the financial crash while the man on the street is losing his family home, the Government(and I use that term lightly) in Ireland went into peoples bank accounts,wages,pensions and unemployment payments to rob money off them to pay off gambling debt's. so I ask you again what moral standards are you talking about???

Tsurugi's picture

Hahaha, whoa man you need to ease up on the propaganda. That stuff rots your brain. CIP

Survival of the fittest. The injuns were obviously not the "fittest".

Survival of the fittest. The injuns were obviously not the "fittest".

The fittest were the absolute criminals !

You whine like a sore loser.

It makes sense that they would have been stuck for a long period of time in beringea.. That is a great distance and the terrain is compartmentalized.

Troy Mobley

Not surprised . There are no matches because you have to have this DNA in the database!! or else it will not show.It's the same for the 500 nations in North America! have they went to the 500 nations and ask them if they want to participate in a DNA database project? I saked one company,who also does genealogy-they told me they have not.The Indian Nations in North American will not-they have nothing to gain.

You are making an awful lot of assumptions and guesses about how they came to their conclusions based entirely on what to you seems the most obvious and logical solution.....

Everything you just said may be totally irrelevant because your guesses and assumptions are very likely not correct.

They have not created a genome database for the tribes in North America.This whole subject is about connecting with DNA . I am a member of the original Cherokee from Georgia,and Arkansas.I'm In contact with tribal leaders and tribal member,both State and Federal.The federally recognized tribes all have tribal ID and a C.D.I.B. card from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.Neither the Tribal Nations nor the B.I.A. have engaged in this DNA process,for the purpose of connecting to ancient ancestors.These DNA co's and their junk scientist , would have to verify each tribal member prior to taking samples.They have done this to a point in Europe and Africa and Asia.the native American Indian Nations all speak a different language,they look different and like the before mentioned countries,they would have to be sampled.This would be the same for this alleged group in S.America.If they went and tested everybody within a 200mi radius , from this area-they would find very similar DNA patterns.

This statement makes me question much of the study:

“Alan Cooper, an evolutionary biologist who was a lead author of the study, said the only possible route was along the Pacific coast because the ice sheets were so thick and there was no way through farther inland.”

Mr. Cooper may have expertise in genetics, but his assertion of an ice barrier doesn’t hold up.  Few people realize the entire idea of an “ice age” comes out of imagination and conjecture, not actual science or observation.

In the 19th century, researchers tried to explain how certain formations occurred and how certain thiings, like erratic boulders, appeared in different places.  

Because at the time the concept of slow, steady evolution had gripped all of academia, they needed a slow process for carrying all this stuff and making these formations.

But giant floods fit the picture much better.  Giant floods explain how marine fossils appear on top of mountains, while ice sheets can’t explain it.

Historical genetics separated from other sciences cannot work.  Modern geneticists have made the same errors, I believe, as scientists in the past made about such claims regarding fingerprints and other forensic data.  To this day you will hear people say that everyone has a unique fingerprint, although we have no way of testing this assumption and we know for a fact some people have fingerprints so similar that even FBI experts can’t tell them apart.

Tom Carberry

"But giant floods fit the picture much better. Giant floods explain how marine fossils appear on top of mountains, while ice sheets can’t explain it.".

Nope, not giant floods, nor ice sheets. The mainstream explanation is plate tectonics, continental drift, upthrust and mountain building.

This was taken almost at random off the web:

"During the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras (65 million to 570 million years ago) the area that is now the Himalaya occupied the floor of the ancient Tethys Sea on the northern part of the Indian Plate of the Earth’s crust. The mountains were formed by the action of plate tectonics as the Indian Plate, moving north, slowly began to press against the stationary Asian land mass. As a result, the already shallow seabed rapidly folded and was raised into longitudinal ridges and valleys. The principal uplift occurred during the middle or late Tertiary period (12 million to 65 million years ago).

Although the phase of major upheaval of the Himalayas has passed, the Himalayas are still rising, albeit at a much slower rate. The Indian plate is continuously moving north at the rate of about 2 cms every year. Because of this reason the Himalayas are rising at the rate of about 5 millimeter per year. This means that the Himalayas are still geologically active and structurally unstable. For this reason, earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in the entire Himalayan region."

There is also the concept of Electrical phenomena, not to be dismissed with ‘pooh pooh’ – if you study the effect of gigantic electrical discharges on earth’s surface you will see exactly the picture of the Grand Canyon – the multiple channeling with deep cutting into the surface with no logical  water source from which to get a powerful stream to erode those channels fits better with Electrical discharge than water erosion – look at the formations on Mars too – exacftly the same picture and not a drop of fluid in sight to make those channels ! I think we need to try and take all ideas into account instead of getting into supposed ‘professional expertise’ when so much is really unknown. See Electric  Universe. concepts & http://www.thunderbolts.info/ for lots of very exciting ideas !!!

Veronica

When you look at a map, it seems at first sight that the Colorado River has crossed a flat plateau, then entered a region of high ground, then out again onto the same lower plateau the other side. How can that be?

The answer we're told is that it was all plain to start with some 6-10 million years ago, with the Colorado wending its way across. There was then geological uplift, raising a block of plateau more than a mile high. But as the plateau rose, the river was able to stay level with the original plain by cutting down as fast as the land rose, creating the Grand Canyon through ability to "keep up", correction, "keep down".

So yes, your term "erosion" is correct, but maybe fails to convey the extraordinary manner in which a river seems able to cross high ground via its own designer deep gorge.

Errosion of the Great Canyon hasn't appeared at other big /huge rivers as Obi, Lena, Nile, Chinese rivers , Indian rivers and European rivers .
How could be explained !??

No other rivers caused canyons similar to the Grand Canyon? What about Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon in Tibet which is similar in size to the Grand Canyon if not larger? There are many river canyons on other continents caused by uplift.

The so called jewish holocaust supposedly had 6 million.
Lenin, Stalin and Co. killed 20-30 million.
Mao killed 100,000,000+

There natives of the Western Hemisphere were not holocausted, they mostly died of illness, which wan't the fault of white boys like me, thank you very much.

The chance is that you will never be one of those mass murders, but it would not make Spaniards and British less evil by exaggerating other atrocities. 80-90% of indigenous people perished within 100 years after Spaniards and British landed on America and British on Australia too and do not claim that Russians and Chinese were pretty much wiped off by their rulers.

Humans are most greedy and most violent creatures on earth for sure.

If you were transported back to the immediate post-Columbian period, and wanted to save as many Amerinds as possible, the best strategy would be not quarantine of the Europeans - that's never going to work perfectly - but widespread immunisation of the Amerinds. Maybe start by injecting people with cowpox and/or chicken pox to build up immunity to smallpox. Get a scab, stab a pin through it into the flesh, hope the immune system recognises the virus as hostile and kills it before it trashes their lungs. I think it would probably work.

Well WE now know that might work if we find ourselves in a similar situation – in the late 15th century they knew nothing of vaccinations to preventanything ! OK for your next Continental Invasion then !

Veronica

Tsurugi's picture

Point being, it wasn't genocide.

"This writer has often thought that if the Europeans knew they were infecting and killing natives with disease, the only decent thing they could have done would have been to quarantine themselves from these continents.f"

Really? Well "this writer" has read Miller's pool of sewage and decided he needs to kill himself before his drooling nonsense embarrasses him even more. What a pile of crap. Pretentious and wrong to boot.

Beautiful map of the Bering land bridge. That is the best comment I can make about the latest addition to the fatal disease of "white guilt".

The population numbers used by the author is false because the prevailing hunter-gatherer system of food supply could not sustain the population cited.
An estimated 10 million people lived what is now the continental United States when the white man arrived.
What we now call Native Americans are the 4th or 5th wave of peoples who arrived in the Western Hemisphere, each successive wave wiping out those they found here.

Blacks were enslaved and brought to the Western Hemisphere to do the work because most 'Native Americans' would not work for the white man.
The Aztecs were sacrificing about 25,000 'Indians' a year, the blood of the victims was thought to feed their gods. One year the Aztecs sacrificed 20,000 Indians to consecrate a temple.
I hope the so-called science used to arrive at the author's libel was able to separate who killed those used for the DNA, those killed by whites or those killed by other Indians.

Nice use of the Jews and Roma genocides, I suppose they were chosen because they were victims of Hitler and the so-called Right Wing. If you want some real genocide, look at Stalin, a Communist (aka. the Left) who killed 15 million Ukrainians the winter of 1932,1933. That was more people killed in Hitler's whole career.

it is something in what you write but you make perfect confusions in between and about the real terms of who the best criminal.
Human race it is all over the world and history.
Jews were the 90% of the force who killed millions of so called Ukrainians and the rest of 10-15% of all population of every ethnicity in USSR( Tsarists Imperium)
But anyhow the greedy criminals from Europe + Jews have killed tens of millions of innocent people in North -America

Aleksa Mici

You forgot to blame the Jews for the Extinction of the Dinosaurs.

Seek Help!

"the liberal all purpose accusation, 'hypocrite'."
"white guilt"

All right, absolutely nothing else you have to say is worth giving any credence.

I take it that you are a strict adherent to blame whitey and someone who is quick to scream hypocrite when some one disagrees with you.
Relax, you suffer from white guilt.

Besides, like Aleksa, you probably believe the Jews wiped out the dinosaurs.

Tsurugi's picture

No, no, no. The Catholics wiped out the dinosaurs. The Jews killed off the Pleistocene Megafauna.

tsurugi,
Catholics, Pleistocene Megafauna, way too many big words for those two.

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