In Search of the Origins of the Philistines – Part 2
(Read Part 1 here) Commonly referred to as the modern Queen of the Philistines , archaeologist Trude Dothan, believes that in some part, the Philistines originated from the island of Cyprus to the North of Egypt and West of Canaan (Dothan, Queen of the Philistines, 59) Dothan would continue to excavate outside of Israel and on Cyprus. Working closely with Cyprus’s director of the Department of Antiquities, Dr. Vassos Karageorghis, who previously excavated the site of Kition, Dothan focused specifically on the Cypriot site of Atheniou, which eventually yielded extraordinary finds of Mycenaean IIIC 1:b pottery which date to approximately 1200 - 1025 BCE. This pottery was reminiscent of the local manufactured pottery found in land of the Philistines in Canaan. Other clues linking the Philistines to Cyprus were the Enkomi ivory made game box, their dress (i.e. the short panelled kilts with wide hem and tassels and the ribbed corselet found above the waist and over their shirts), and an image of a warrior with similar headdress as seen in Egyptian reliefs (see images above) engraved on a stone seal (Dothan, People of the Sea, 95).
Ivory game box found at Enkomi Cyprus. Image source: Wikipedia
While the excavations of Dothan indicated that there was a Philistine presence on the island of Cyprus at the time and/or just prior to their invasion of Egypt and resettlement in the Levant, it still did not conclusively produce sufficient evidence to claim that they originated from Cyprus.
Based on personal research, it is this author’s opinion that the Old Testament verses may be correct on this matter. Possible earlier references and never before associated links to the Philistines may be found on the island of Crete, but before we identify those pieces of evidence, let us briefly summarize the history of the Aegean.
During the Late Bronze Age period of the Eastern Mediterranean, at approximately 1400 BCE, the Mycenaean Greek civilization overtook the pre-existing Minoan control of the Aegean and began to occupy Crete among the other Aegean islands. In the process of extending their dominion and influences from mainland Greece to these regions, they adopted and adapted the Minoan Linear A form of writing, which has been dubbed as Linear B by modern scholars and they also resumed the Minoan trade routes throughout the Near Eastern world (Cline, 47). It is uncertain as to whether the Mycenaean expansion into Minoan territory was a peaceful integration or a violent takeover but one thing is for certain, what didn’t assimilate under the new Mycenaean regime simply vanished and traces of the older Minoan ways were to disappear completely off of the historical record until British archaeologist, Sir Arthur Evans, would rediscover the lost civilization at the beginning of the 20th century CE. Evans would have the privilege of naming the civilization after the mythical king Minos (Castleden, 1). Prior to the Mycenaean takeover, Minoan influence extended beyond the Aegean and their legacy would be found throughout Anatolia, Egypt, Cyprus, the Levant, and even Mesopotamia (Cline, 19). Going back to Cyprus, the Cypriot kingdom of Alashiya (the name given to this island in ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern records), most likely centered at the site of Enkomi would adopt the Minoan Linear A script and adapt it for their own use. This would give way to a new Cypro-Minoan syllabary which would later be referred to as Linear C. The undeciphered Linear C script would eventually evolve and be used to inscribe the later spoken Arcadocypriot language (read below).
Tablet inscribed with Cypro-Minoan 2 script. Late Bronze III. Photo source: Wikipedia
Archaeologists Dothan and Karageorghis may have been on the right path and not too far from the truth all along. Although they were missing a vital piece to the puzzle and that piece was to be found on the island of Crete and at Pylos on the southern Greek mainland in the Peloponnese. As mentioned earlier, the Mycenaean Greek language was recorded with the Linear B script. The syllabary was comprised of hundreds of signs that represent syllabic, ideographic, and semantic values. Linear B was deciphered and translated by Michael Ventris and John Chadwick between 1951 - 1953, providing insight into the more archaic form of Greek spoken by the Mycenaeans (Chadwick, 84). Following the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization at the end of the Bronze Age, new dialects of the Greek language emerged which included variations of Doric, Aeolic, Attic, Ionic, and Arcadocyriot; the latter of which we are concerned with at the present.