Sumerian king list

The Sumerian King List still puzzles historians after more than a century of research

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Out of the many incredible artefacts that have been recovered from sites in Iraq where flourishing Sumerian cities once stood, few have been more intriguing that the Sumerian King List, an ancient manuscript originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer (ancient southern Iraq) from Sumerian and neighbouring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of "official" kingship. What makes this artefact so unique is the fact that the list blends apparently mythical pre-dynastic rulers with historical rulers who are known to have existed. 

The first fragment of this rare and unique text, a 4,000-year-old cuneiform tablet, was found in the early 1900s by German-American scholar Hermann Hilprecht at the site of ancient Nippur and published in 1906.  Since Hilprecht’s discovery, at least 18 other exemplars of the king’s list have been found, most of them dating from the second half of the Isin dynasty (c. 2017-1794 BCE.).  No two of these documents are identical. However, there is enough common material in all versions of the list to make it clear that they are derived from a single, "ideal" account of Sumerian history.

Sumerian king listAmong all the examples of the Sumerian King List, the Weld-Blundell prism in the Ashmolean Museum cuneiform collection in Oxford represents the most extensive version as well as the most complete copy of the King List. The 8-inch-high prism contains four sides with two columns on each side. It is believed that it originally had a wooden spindle going through its centre so that it could be rotated and read on all four sides. It lists rulers from the antediluvian (“before the flood”) dynasties to the fourteenth ruler of the Isin dynasty (ca. 1763–1753 BC).

The list is of immense value because it reflects very old traditions while at the same time providing an important chronological framework relating to the different periods of kingship in Sumeria, and even demonstrates remarkable parallels to accounts in Genesis.

The ancient civilisation of Sumer

Sumer (sometimes called Sumeria), is the site of the earliest known civilization, located in the southernmost part of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, in the area that later became Babylonia and is now southern Iraq from around Baghdad to the Persian Gulf.

By the 3rd millennium BC, Sumer was the site of at least twelve separate city states: KishErechUr,SipparAkshak, Larak, NippurAdabUmmaLagashBad-tibira, and Larsa. Each of these states comprised a walled city and its surrounding villages and land, and each worshiped its own deity, whose temple was the central structure of the city. Political power originally belonged to the citizens, but, as rivalry between the various city-states increased, each adopted the institution of kingship

The Sumerian King List, records that eight kings reigned before a great flood. After the Flood, various city-states and their dynasties of kings temporarily gained power over the others. 

Sumer’s mythical past

The Sumerian King List begins with the very origin of kingship, which is seen as a divine institution: “the kingship had descended from heaven”.  The rulers in the earliest dynasties are represented as reigning fantastically long periods:

After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years.

Some of the rulers mentioned in the early list, such as Etana, Lugal-banda and Gilgamesh, are mythical or legendary figures whose heroic feats are subjects of a series of Sumerian and Babylonian narrative compositions.

The early list names eight kings with a total of 241,200 years from the time when kingship “descended from heaven” to the time when "the Flood" swept over the land and once more "the kingship was lowered from heaven" after the Flood.

Interpretation of long reigns

The amazingly long tenure of the early kings has provoked many attempts at interpretation. At one extreme is the complete dismissal of the astronomically large figures as “completely artificial” and the view that they are unworthy of serious consideration.  At the other extreme, is the belief that the numbers have a basis in reality and that the early kings were indeed gods who were capable of living much longer than humans.

In between the two extremes is the hypothesis that the figures represent relative power, triumph or importance.  For example, in ancient Egypt, the phrase “he died aged 110” referred to someone who lived life to the full and who offered an important contribution to society.  In the same way, the extremely long periods of reign of the early kings may represent how incredibly important they were perceived as being in the eyes of the people. This doesn’t explain, however, why the periods of tenure later switched to realistic time periods.

Related to this perspective is the belief that although the early kings are historically unattested, this does not preclude their possible correspondence with historical rulers who were later mythicised.

Finally, some scholars have sought to explain the figures through a mathematical investigation and interpretation (e.g. Harrison, 1993).

Relation to Genesis

Some scholars (e.g. Wood, 2003) have drawn attention to the fact that there are remarkable similarities between the Sumerian King List and accounts in Genesis.  For example, Genesis tells the story of ‘the great flood’ and Noah’s efforts to save all the species of animals on Earth from destruction.  Likewise, in the Sumerian King List, there is discussion of a great deluge: “the flood swept over the earth.”

The Sumerian King List provides a list of eight kings (some versions have 10) who reigned for long periods of time before the flood, ranging from 18,600 to 43,200 years.  This is similar to Genesis 5, where the generations from Creation to the Flood are recorded. Interestingly, between Adam and Noah there are eight generations, just as there are eight kings between the beginning of kingship and the flood in the Sumerian King List.

After the flood, the King List records kings who ruled for much shorter periods of time. Thus, the Sumerian King List not only documents a great flood early in man’s history, but it also reflects the same pattern of decreasing longevity as found in the Bible - men had extremely long life spans before the flood and much shorter life spans following the flood (Wood, 2003).

The Sumerian King List truly is a perplexing mystery. Why would the Sumerians combine mythical rulers with actual historical rulers in one document? Why are there so many similarities with Genesis? Why were ancient kings described as ruling for thousands of years? These are just some of the questions that still remain unanswered after more than a century of research.

By April Holloway

References

The Sumerian King List – University of Oxford

Great Discoveries in Biblical Archaeology: The Sumerian King List – by Bryant G. Wood

The Sumerian king list: translation - The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

The Sumerian King List - by L.C. Geerts

Reinvestigating the Antediluvian Sumerian King List – by R. K. Harrison

The Sumerian King List – by Thorkild Jacobsen (The Oriental Institute of the University of California)

Comments

angieblackmon's picture

is it possible that at least for the mythical rulers, that the people lived under the guidance of this person for a long amount of time, then under another and another...while the actual rulers changed more frequently. I'm trying to think of a good example to use...okay this might not be the best example but in America, we have the democratic and republican parties, we could have elections resulting in one party winning several elections in a row, but under different presidents....like President Grant took office in March 4, 1869 and we had 4 consecutive republican presidents ending with President Arthur finishing his term March 4, 1885...so in that 16 years, we had 4 different presidents but all from the same republican party...so could these Kings have done something similiar??? or am I completely out in left field? Just a thought...

love, light and blessings

AB

I don't think that that is left field. Possibly they were family dynasties???

Did the Kings believe in reincarnation? If so maybe their children were considered the living incarnation of the residing king.In essence the child would continue the kingship without interruption in this way the king lives on until there is no heir.

Why do scholars insist on assuming that the earlier parts of the scrolls are mythical? The first thing the ancients say, is that the gods descended from heaven. Heaven would be the skies, and we know, the skies eventually become space. In an age where man has gone into space, why is it so hard to believe, that the gods were entities from outer space? That, even in times which are ancient history to us, entities from another world, could not have space travel with technology that is still far ahead of ours? We imagine all kinds of advanced technologies, warp drives, star gates, etc. and yet, we can not believe entities that have existed far longer than the human race, could not have developed what we can imagine, or something even better? What is there in natural law, that would prevent such entities from having longer lives, particularly if they come from a different world? What is there in science, particularly genetic science, that would prevent such entities from creating a hybrid race on Earth, combining their DNA with hominids native to Earth? These king lists, and even passages from the Bible, confirm that there were entities that lived much longer lives, in the days of our early civilizations. Around the times when human kings took over ruling from the gods, lives became increasingly shorter. Could this be because of the combination of the hybrids lives being shorter to begin with, and a lack of interbreeding with the alien entities, because they returned to the stars? We always have choices. In this case, we can choose between the disbelief of scholars, that the gods were myths, or we can choose to believe that our ancestors knew the gods had descended from heaven, because the gods told them what happened, created us, ruled us, then used us to labor for them in their gold mines, then left, when they had enough of the gold they came for.

Way to think outside the confined limited mentality.

Thank you.

Thank you for this insightful thought.

You're welcome.

Completely agree with this. This is exactly how I bid my argument!

As to Sirwilhelm's comment on February 8, 2014, I disagree. His whole theory is not supported by substantial evidence. Show me the scientific proof of alien DNA in the gene pool the same way a geneticist can show me the presence of the Neanderthal DNA. I disagree with the forced choice you posit at the end of your comment. Much can be discerned by the tools of modern science and the scientific method.

I feel a little sad when folks rush to "Aliens!" to explain anything they do not understand in human history. There are so many other explanations, whether its an incomplete understanding of the linguistics shift over 2,000+ years, variations in explaining the passage of distant time, all sorts of explorable methods to figure out this mystery and instead, we get "Aliens!" To me, that is as valid as yelling "Unicorns!" or "Angels!" - it is a way to say "I came up with an answer that cannot be tested in any way." You can use that to explain why your car won't start or what caused an earthquake. I'd rather say we haven't figured it out yet, but we will continue to use our tools, our minds, and our understanding of our *human* ancestors to unravel the mystery. But if Aliens and Unicorns works for you, have at it. Just try to grasp that its a lame answer.

It is interesting that you missed the fact that Abraham's father, Terah, was from Ur (Genesis 11:27) which was one of the Sumerian kingdoms.

What difference does that make, when Abraham, himself, was from Ur?

He came from Ur of the Chaldeans (Ur Kasdim, in the Hebrew text), which is in the area between Syria and Iraq. Not the southern Ur of the Sumerians (Shemer in the Hebrew).

This article says the Biblical Ur was in Sumeria, and Abraham was from there. Take up your dispute with those scholars, if you like, I believe Abraham was from the Ur of Sumeria.

It is interesting that you missed the fact that Abraham's father, Terah, was from Ur (Genesis 11:27) which was one of the Sumerian kingdoms.

Totally in line with my thoughts :-) .. beginning- spirit of God ...later more about self .. hence erratic -Quicker periods.

Is nobody ready Sitchin's Earth Cronical books? It explains a lot.

I've read some of the "Earth Chronicles" books by Zecariah Sitchin. Fascinating!

The Bible also has people living for hundreds of years. Two documents with the same ideas? I believe it's true.

I believe that this is like America has been a Democracy since 1776 till whenever it changes to a Socialism or Communism. If it were that way. But truly it was real Kings under a real Kingdom under G.O.D. If we all got over our own greed we could do it again.

It's interesting that all of the antedeluvian reigns end in 00. Perhaps there is a mistranslation or that the 0's are some sort of placeholder. If the 0's are discarded, suddenly the reigns prior to the flood come into view as being suspiciously similar to the Bible. Just a guess...

I like this guess...

This list is a heck of a lot older than the Bible, and considering that the failing Roman Empire concocted Christianity as a control vehicle for the poor masses once the royals were split into fiefdoms, I would venture to say that they just hodge podged a bunch of stuff from different books of the day, so that anyone who doubted it's contents as questionable would be met by someone else who says" I heard of that story before, thus quaffing the objectionable. Even if the Bible were a scholarly book, the Jesus assassins at the council of Nicea would have borrowed it from earlier sources and mis-translate the hell out of it. Kind of a moot point either way.

angieblackmon's picture

^that's in interesting point. i divided the numbers by 365 because i wondered if it was possible they mistranslated "years" for "days"...64,800 would still come out to 177 years though.

love, light and blessings

AB

177 years is a bit more likely tan 64800 years but not much. I question the translation of the text altogether if this is what they are getting as a translation. Perhaps they used a number 12 based system or this text was a translation from another, earlier text and they used a different numerical system and they failed to translate it correctly. Perhaps this translation gave someone a political advantage in the past by claiming kinship with these long lived rulers. At any rate I find a 64800 year reign unbelievable and question the translation. I do under stand that people have different definitions of a year but it is usually somewhere in the neighborhood of 360 days. I think the early part of the text that claims these extremely long lives is a mistranslation that supported a mystical belief that gave someone a political advantage in the "church" and or the palace or both.

The sumerians had a double hour or beru I believe it was called. Like we have 12 hours and 12 hours AM and PM. You could divide the 177 by 2 and the 64,000 becomes 87 years ... still long but not for a family dynasty.

i agree. occam's razor comes to mind.

My thought is that meanings for words change over great periods of time and due to the slow evolution of languages - as 'million' could mean 1,000 or 1,000,000 depending on when it was written. If you read hieroglyphs from the 1st Dynasty of Kemet and then try to apply the same linguistic rules to a 23rd Dynasty scroll, it would appear to be gibberish or at a minimum, severely garbled. Think of the words "bad" or "gnarly" and how they have changed over just the past 60 years. In the same way, I think that Sumerian writers in the historical period were trying to interpret earlier texts and traditions and although the numbers would have seemed out of line, they continued to accept and pass them down because their current language translated the numbers in the manner than they were accustomed. Or, aliens.

Dividing the number of years by 365 is assuming that the ancients used the Gregorian Calendar. I assure you they did not!
Look at the length of time in each king's reign: The first, 28,800--divide that by 3600, this is the length of earth-years in the Gods' planetary orbit. 28,800 divided by 3600 equals 8. Therefore, that man ruled for only eight years, whereas, the second man was on the throne for 36,000 years--(SARS, as the Gods called their years) Divide 36000 by 3600, and this man ruled for 10 years--both of which are much easier to handle or to believe (according to the "experts!")

I'd guess the numbers are astronomically large because they referring to astronomy. The early "kings" are probably metaphors for cycles of planets, comets, precessional ages, etc.

So why do the life spans decrease in line with a physical equation ie as if the life spans are getting shorter over the generations
We are a genetic spin off of the original settlement on Earth begun by Ea
No Im not a Sitchinite but he had some things right

Life spans are NOT shorter than they use to be, for the vast majority of the world (even poor areas) they are considerably longer than any time in recorded history. Aside from works of myth and fiction of course.

With each cloning of animals we have learned each time we clone. The new clones lifespan is shorter than the one before. So maybe we are all clones of the original? G. O. D. who lives forever.

The Gods were from a planet that had an orbit of 3600 of our earth years. Therefore, when they came to earth and stayed here for, say, 10 years, their bodies adapted to our shorter orbital time, which, in turn, translated to shorter life spans.

I believe it was Einstein who first ventured the opinion that if man were to live on an earth that rotated faster than the 24-hour span it does now, then his body functions would speed up, too, very effectively shortening his life.

if you add the digits of the reign periods mentioned there is only one which don't add up too 9 and nine was and is one of the most important sacred numbers. also this practice of adding the digits is very common in ancient times, (now it is called the digital root of a number) and is important for us to consider it in our interpretation. here is a example: Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. 2+8+8+00=18, 1+8=9. check the others, even the 8 kings added together .

aprilholloway's picture

Really interesting, thanks Rut! But why would they do that for the early kings and not the later ones?

Well, it seems that those manuscripts were based on earlyer information, so, maybe the older kings informations were stablished by a culture that valorized this kind of code, and the more "recent" kings by a culture who had forgoten this practice

You're right on April. I believe that it is a factual account of what happened. All of the other arguments are old and they leave us at the same place. Nowhere. Why is it so hard to believe in a new concept? Is it because it's what you were taught in school and so becomes dogma. Seems to me there has been well concerted effort to conceal the real truth from all of humanity.

Now just to qualify some of what I said, I'm old but my mind is young and I have to degrees in Science and I have always thought outside the box because they Experts are always so adamant about this is how it is. Maybe I'm a rebel but then who cares but me. ;-)

Thats because the tried to keep their reigns to the 666=216 number code ie 2160 yrs,for example

What I think is interesting is the number 666. While Christians quail at the sight of the number, they apparently don't realize they are actually looking at an ancient form of shorthand.
To the Annunaki Gods, it made sense. They used the sexigesimal system of counting. Based on the number 60, instead of our metric 100, numbers were alternately multiplied by 6 and 10: I.E. 6 X 6=36, 36 X10=360, 360 X 6=2160, etc. These people were responsible for our 12 hour days, doubling the 12 to 24 which is still used. Their 360 was made up of 12 segments, and the Number 12 is also used today: 12 hours of daylight, 12 hours of night, 12 jurors, 12 months in the year (which adds up to 360 days, actually--Leap Year takes care of the rest.) The 12 Tribes of Israel, etc.
But, getting back to the dread number of the "beast," 666. By counting as the Annunaki would, and also the Sumerians, the first digit 6 is the base. Multiply that by 10 equals 60--which was also the rank of the Annunaki Kings, and, lastly (I don't know why they did this, but they did) the number 60 was multiplied by 10 again to become 600--which represented their planet. Therefore, the 666 is, "base, king or leader, planet." Someone in the early Christian church was using it as a crutch to turn his flock from the "Pagan" ways, and it stuck.

Why are some of the kings referred to as "mythical?" Isn't that an assumption based on our current knowing?

Exactly!

From his study of the Sumerian clay tablets, Zecharia Sitchin, explained that: “the ‘sar’ (ie 3,600 Earth-years) was the orbital period of Nibiru around the Sun. For anyone on Nibiru, it was just one Nibiru-year. According to the Sumerians, there were indeed others, intelligent beings, on Nibiru, evolving there well ahead of hominids on Earth. The Sumerians called them ‘Annunaki’, literally meaning “Those who from Heaven to Earth came.” Sumerian texts repeatedly asserted that the Anunnaki had come to Earth from Nibiru in great aniquity; and that when they had come here, they counted time not in Earth terms but in terms of Nibiru’s orbit. The unit of that Divine Time, a year of the gods, was the ‘sar’.

Texts known as the Sumerian King Lists, which describe the first settlements of the Annunaki on Earth, list the governorships of the first ten Annunaki leaders before the Deluge in ‘sars’, the 3,600 Earth-year cycles. From the first landing to the Deluge, according to those texts, 120 sars had passed: Nibiru orbited the Sun one hundred and twenty times, which equals 432,000 Earth-years...” (The Earth Chronicles-Book Five: When Time Began, 1993)

From this we can work out from what RUTS wrote earlier, for example, that: “Alaljar ruled for 36000”. By dividing 36000 by the 3,600 Earth-years of Nibiru’s orbit, we find Alaljar ruled for 10 Earth-years!

Further, I believe that after the flood, the twelve ‘city-states’ mention above were still ruled by ‘deities/gods’ (who were in fact real Annunaki lords), so they would have had the longevity or life-span to rule for long periods. This was also a time when knowledge of agriculture and domestication of animals (among many other things!) were imparted to humans in order to help the recovery after the flood. When, in 3760 BC, the Annunaki gods got tired of dealing with the growing masses of ordinary humankind they gave kingship to deserving persons (as go-betweens) who were probably part divine/part human, hence they would have also retained a certain amount of longevity. As the divine portions were bred out of humankind, so too were their long life-spans and they became more suseptible to Earth’s fast orbit, rotation and gravity.

Zecharia Sitchin is a fraud in my opinion. All the texts he is alleged to have read, do not say what he says they say. He also never gave any proof he could really read the cuneiform writings. He merely took the theory that an advanced alien culture came to earth in ancient times and made up a story to fit the pictographic forms he saw in the relics of Sumeria.

You are correct that Sitchin is a complete and total fraud, the planet Nibiru is a fanciful invention, and anyone who believes in the rambling, blathering, astronomically impossible nonsense of this academic imposter should be deeply ashamed of themselves.

As for the King's Lists, it is simply mythological exaggeration to make their ancestors seem more important and justify their hereditary kingships. Indian mythology is filled with even more ridiculously exaggerated stretches of times, some of which are even longer than the known, actual age of the universe.

Any King that actually ruled for thousands and thousands of years would at some point get bored and quit, be murdered by a jealous son, or otherwise die in an accident.

This same old Sitchin rubbish is not "bold, out of the box thinking", it is the cliched ramblings of the illiterate.

Your personal attacks on Sitchen are immature and bordering on childish. Attack his theories, show where he is in error, make a case for something opposite, but DO NOT attack the man personally. It discredits anything you have to say. Make the case with good geological evidence that the Earth has not experienced several major cataclysms over the early Holocene, some of which were mega to Super-cataclysms. Make the case that the Earth did not experience extremely rapid ice melt surges at least three times during the early Holocene. Demonstrate why the geological evidence supports that conclusion above all others, and if you think if should not, then demonstrate your arguments in clear points. Become a scientist and back up your arguments with facts, and leave out the ad hominin attacks. You will be a better person, and we might learn something. Sitchen spent 12 years learning to decipher and read Sumerian cuneiform writing. He is still considered one of the few world class experts on that language. He translated it as he understood it to be. If you are an expert on Sumerian text, I would be interested in your explanation of the Wandering Planets and their dominance in the Heavens during the period before the great cataclysm, The Sumerian and other hieroglyphic texts say that the 'Wandering' planets passing close to Earth causing great destruction on several occasions. Which is written, recorded history on the tablets on Ninevah. Please explain to us lay people why it is wrong. And why all the late discoveries seem to support that narrative over any other. Just please stop attacking people, and attack ideas, facts, information.

Have you read every book, every word, he has written? Or are you just repeating the Alinsky style personal attacks that most of his detractors make? Especially dispicable attacks, since Sitchin is no longer alive to defend himself. Many "experts" that dispute his translations, ignore the fact that translation is not a precise science, and many translators disagree on the translations of single words, even in the Bible. The word that is translated as "salt", in the Bible, can also be translated as "vapor", meaning Lot's wife was probably vaporized, not turned into a pillar of salt, and it's being disputed now, that the word translated as "kill" in "Thou shalt not kill", actually means "murder", as in "Thou shalt not murder", which makes a big difference in the meaning of the phrase, does it not? The pictographic forms on the Sumerian relics, are as open to interpretation, as the cunieform writing is. The reason the scholars that first interpreted them both, dismissed them as myth, is because they had no knowledge of the technology we posses today. If you can look at the same pictographs, and interpret them differently than Sitchin did, I'd like to hear your versions. Have you looked at those pictographs, yourself? I have, and I was forced to agree with Sitchin's interpretations. Sitchin is not the only author, scholar, scientist, or other kind of authority, that subscribes to the ancient alien theory. Since science by consensus is so popular today, how do you feel about the kind of consensus, which has led to a very popular TV series, by that name, Ancient Aliens? Now in it's 6th season. Maybe you need to catch up?

SIRWILHELM - You sound very passionate about the subject. That for me is a big red flag. What I want to be true and what has been proven to me are very different things. Try to separate your feelings from your views.
That's why the TV show is so popular, we WANT to believe. Remember, wanting it does not make it so. Show me some facts. Show me some old alloys, or glass, composites, synthetics. Not there, are they? Translations and interpretations of artifacts are just guesses from peoples personal frame of reference biased by what they want to find.
I think that professional archaeologists tend to do the same thing, just in the opposite direction. The recent theory that early Americans spent 10,000 years in the Bering Straights is a perfect example. The theory is based on the discrepancy between new DNA evidence and the old "land bridge" theory. Building nothing from nothing.
I would love proof of alien intervention, or far earlier civilizations, but I'm going to have to wait for a little solid evidence.

mr32953

What do you think they do on Ancient Aliens? Have you ever watched it? They show a lot of evidence on that show, but, I have already seen, and read about, almost all of it, because I have read many, many books in my life, and I am in my 60s.

As for the Bering Straights theory:

http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2014/03/08/more-reasons-doubt-...

There's lots of evidence for alien intervention, and earlier civilizations, if you choose to recognize it. There's such a thing as being too skeptical, which leads to not being able to see the forest, for the trees. For me, I am also waiting for a piece of evidence, that will be impossible to ignore, if it exists. The reappearance of Nibiru, on it's comet like passage through the Solar System. Nibiru is supposed to be a planet the size of Neptune/Uranus. In ancient times, it was visible even in daylight, during it's closest appraoch, because it gives off it's own, ruddy, red light, a description which likens it to a dark star. There are some ancient carvings which depict farmers plowing their fields under it's light It's looking as though I will not live long enough to see it. Perhaps you will?

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