Petralona Cave - Greece

The human skull that challenges the Out of Africa theory

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This is the account of the discovery of a skull that has the potential to change what we know about human evolution, and a suppression and cover-up which followed.   

In 1959, in an area called Chalkidiki in Petralona, Northern Greece, a shepherd came across a small opening to a cave, which became visible when a thick covering of snow finally melted.  He gathered a group of villagers to help him clear the entrance so they could go inside and explore.  They found a cave rich in stalactites and stalagmites. But they also found something surprising – a human skull embedded in the wall (later research also uncovered a huge number of fossils including pre-human species, animal hair, fossilized wood, and stone and bone tools).   

Petralona SkullThe skull was given to the University of Thessaloniki in Greece by the President of the Petralona Community. The agreement was that once the research was done, a museum would be opened featuring the findings from the Petralona cave, and the skull would be returned to be displayed in the museum – something that never happened.

Dr Aris Poulianos, member of the UNESCO's IUAES (International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences), later founder of the Anthropological Association of Greece , and an expert anthropologist who was working at the University of Moscow at the time, was invited by the Prime Minister of Greece to return to Greece to take a position of a University Chair in Athens.  This was due to the publication of his book, ‘The Origins of the Greeks’, which provides excellent research showing that Greek people didn’t originate from the Slavic nations but were indigenous to Greece.  Upon his return to Greece, Dr Poulianos was made aware of the discovery of the skull at Petralona, and immediately started studying the Petralona cave and skull.

The ‘Petralona man’, or Archanthropus of Petralona, as it has since been called, was found to be 700,000 years old, making it the oldest human europeoid (presenting European traits) of that age ever discovered in Europe. Dr Poulianos’ research showed that the Petralona man evolved separately in Europe and was not an ancestor of a species that came out of Africa. 

In 1964, independent German researchers, Breitinger and Sickenberg, tried to dismiss Dr Poulianos’ findings, arguing that the skull was only 50,000 years old and was indeed an ancestor that came from Africa.  However, research published in the US in 1971 in the prestigious Archaeology magazine, backed up the findings that the skull was indeed 700,000 years old.  This was based on an analysis of the cave’s stratigraphy and the sediment in which the skull was embedded.  Further research in the cave discovered isolated teeth and two pre-human skeletons dating back 800,000 years, as well as other fossils of various species.

Today, most academics who have analyzed the Petralona remains say that the cranium of the Archanthropus of Petralona belongs to an archaic hominid distinguished from Homo erectus, and from both the classic Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans, but showing characterists of all those species and presenting strong European traits.  A skull dating back 700,000 which is either Homo sapien or part Homo sapien is in direct conflict with the Out of Africa theory of human evolution.  

Petralona Man

Further excavations continued in the cave of Petralona with the participation of international researchers (46 specialists from 12 separate countries), which provided further proof of Dr Poulianos’ claims, including remarkable findings like fossilized pieces of wood, an oak leaf, animal hair and coprolites, which enabled accurate dating, as well as the almost continuous presence of stone and bone tools of the Archanthropus evolutionary stage, from the lower (750,000 years) to the upper (550,000 years) layers of sediment within the cave.

The research, after an interruption due to the dictatorship in Greece, continued up to 1983. It was then ordered by the government that all excavations at the site were forbidden to anyone, including the original archaeological team, and for 15 years nobody had access to the site or to the findings – no reason was provided by the government.  Was this denial of access to prevent the extraction of whatever new scientific conclusions remained hidden within the incredible fossils embedded within the layers of the caves’ walls? 

After the Anthropological Society of Greece took the case to the courts, 15 years later they were again allowed access to the cave.  Since then the Ministry of Culture is trying in any way to overcome the Courts decision and further trials proceed.

Comments

Very intriguing, to say the least.

malisa wright

Justbod's picture

Very interesting - would be great if this could be investigated / verified further.....

 

Sculptures, carvings & artwork inspired by a love of history & nature: www.justbod.co.uk

 

 

 

As often happens with this sort of consiracy claim, there is one big question that comes to mind: WHY would the Greek government try to suppress this story if it was true? What do they gin by hiding such a game changing discovery? The answer: nothing at all, making the entire concept ludicrous

aprilholloway's picture

It's not so much about what they have to gain, it's more about what they have to lose if they don't.  The skull discovery contradicts conventional perspectives about the 'Out of Africa theory', which is taught is almost every school and written in virtually every ancient history book.  It is part of human nature to defend pre-conceived ideas, particularly those that are deeply rooted. Unfortunately our human psychology is not very good at changing an idea that we firmly believe to be true. Just think about how many scientists were put to death during the medieval era for daring to challenge mainstream perspectives. Of course it is not as drastic as that now, but there are still plenty of examples of new perspectives being dismissed or suppressed because they rock the boat just a little too much. 

Sometimes there are more sinister motives to cover-up scientific discoveries or breakthroughs. And though the more common approach by those wishing to silence a scientist/s and to suppress his/her/their discovery or breakthrough is to use propaganda, in the form of counter- theories, debunkers, and other opposing forces (I call them Mouth-Whores) that use little evidence which is twisted regardless, and instead make wild accusations and launch personal attacks on the scientists or anyone that supports their findings or gives them a platform to speak. The actual science is buried, usually all it takes is for the information to be ignored for a period of time before it no longer exists in the public mind.

However, I can assure you that much more extreme measures that aren't a question of whether scientists or researchers targeted are to be eliminated, but are those comprising the rings closest to the targets are to be eliminated as well. It seems that these measures are usually reserved for those who could, through their breakthrough and their network of supports ability to spread it, intentionally or not, ignite an economic or technological revolution. The fast onset and economic viability of the breakthrough are primary factors.

So in the areas such as archaeology, new discoveries that threaten the currently accepted and university scholar approved history of things, (which was given to them, and defended by them, rather than introduced or theorized and considered and evaluated and re-evaluated) are missing the element of a rapid onset economically, and thus unlikely to warrant eliminating people. That isn't necessary when the power structures ability to control what the masses are exposed to via the media as well as their ability to steer public opinion using fear and propaganda disseminated via the same is so thorough. The scientists are simply blacklisted, labeled quacks and fired, or have their grants pulled.
the fact that Dr. Poulianos and his wife were attacked in their home is puzzling, I lean towards the culprits being idiots reacting emotionally to their beliefs being threatened but I don't know that for sure.

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