Is Bigfoot Real? Emerging Scientific Evidence
Is Bigfoot real? A better question would be why has mainstream science failed to put the question to the test?
Science is duty bound by definition to explain the unexplained, yet in 2016 some people are still debating its existence rather than examining emerging scientific evidence. Some of this evidence has emerged from unexpected places.
Sighting from “Patterson–Gimlin film frame 352” by Patterson-Gimlin film. This is the familiar or popular face of Bigfoot. ( Wikipedia)
One of these places is Mount St. Helens in Washington State, U.S.A, where in 2013 and 2014 I along with one of my former college students located three different ungulate rib prey bone assemblages (elk and deer rib bones) that had seemingly inexplicable chewing marks left in them.
Mount S. Helens, Washington, USA. (Pixabay.com/ PixMtSt.Helens)
We conducted a two year Zooarcheological field research project, which culminated March 26, 2016 at the 69th Annual Anthropological Research Conference, where I presented our conclusions to a room full of respected academic and governmental anthropologists and archeologists.
Tooth and Bite Marks
I presented data in the form of incisor, molar and pre-molar dental signature evidence that we were able to very carefully link with current scientific literature describing historical and contemporary hominin chewing evidence. This published, peer reviewed literature described a diagnostic framework for accurately separating and identifying hominin mastication evidence recovered from both pre-archaic sites and comparative contemporary chewing studies upon ungulate rib bones.
Furthermore, we proposed the evaluation of a new category of incisal dentition signature termed a Notch, which consolidated the applicable literature and accurately described some of our field research evidence.
The conference gave us a chance to demonstrate the links between the teeth mark evidence that we recovered in the field with current peer reviewed scientific research covering the same subject. This current research provided a framework by which we could compare our tooth mark descriptions. It also helps provide a very effective tool that enables scientists to re-examine other suspected human chewing evidence upon bones.
A new category of incisal dentition signature termed a Notch. (Photo courtesy writer)
All three locations contained the same evidence profiles of ungulate (deer and elk) rib evidence with clear and measurable evidence of hominin mastication activity. The dentition of other known local ecosystem specific predators and scavengers was compared against Homo sapiens dentition. Of the 25 total hominin incisor measurements taken from all three sites, 92% are outside the average lateral incisors size range for modern Homo sapiens . In this same sample 80% are outside the average measurement for central incisor. From this evidence, Upper Inter-Canine measurements can be accurately estimated. All of the comparative analysis demonstrated hominin dentition physio-morphology of at least two times the size of modern humans.
Fossil jaw of Neanderthal.
(Credit: P Sémal, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences)
The evidence was clear and consistent across all three locations. The teeth marks and jaw shapes of bear, cougar, humans, porcupine, and wolverine along with every other potential species that might have been responsible was examined and eliminated or included. After identifying the teeth marks as “Hominin” we measured the geometry of the individual marks and were able to determine that they were primarily outside the upper size range for current humans. From these measurements we were able to estimate mouth size, which again was over double the size of a modern human.
The Pre-Molar and Molar dentition signature evidence analysis is perhaps the strongest indication of hominin mastication evidence that emerged from the field research. The current peer reviewed scientific literature describes Rib Peeling as a clear hominin assigned bone surface modification diagnostic characteristic. The physical act of rib peeling entails putting a rib in a hominins mouth and using their hands as levers to move the rib in cooperation with using their pre-molars and molars to masticate the ends. This specific force application procedure has been evaluated over several peer reviewed studies both pre-archaic and contemporary as clearly diagnostic of hominin mastication activity. This process creates specific secondary dentition signatures in consistent hemispherical regions of masticated ungulate rib specimens. The pre-molar impressions were triangular in shape while the molar evidence is characterized by double arch shapes. The evidence recovered from all three sites demonstrated clear and consistent rib peeling evidence.
Rib Peeling. (Photo courtesy writer)
The physical act or process of Rib Peeling is very simple. It consists of using your hands to put a rib in your mouth and using those same hands to move the end of the rib around as you chew on the opposite end. This creates very specific damage and tooth marks in predictable locations on a rib. It also creates secondary tooth marks in expected locations. This predictable combination of damage and individual teeth mark impression evidence is clearly supported in current scientific research and is an accurate tool that enables the separation of hominin verses predator chewing evidence in bones.